Código sanitario para los animales terrestres
Code sanitaire pour les animaux terrestres
Volume : 12
Cote : OIE
Classement : PUBLICATION OIE
The aim of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (hereafter referred to as the Terrestrial Code) is to assure the sanitary safety of international trade in terrestrial animals (mammals, birds and bees) and their products. This is achieved through the detailing of health measures to be used by the veterinary authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, while avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers.
The health measures in the Terrestrial Code (in the form of standards, guidelines and recommendations) have been formally adopted by the OIE International Committee, the general assembly of all Delegates of OIE Member Countries, which constitutes the organisation's highest decision-making body. This 12th edition incorporates the modifications to the Terrestrial Code agreed by the OIE International Committee during the 71st General Session in May 2003. These include revised chapters on the following subjects: general definitions, evaluation of Veterinary Services, animal disease notification, foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever, Rift Valley fever, scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, leptospirosis, bovine anaplasmosis, bovine babesiosis, theileriosis, and embryos. As well, a new chapter on 'judgement of equivalence' (Chapter 1.3.7.) and new appendices on 'antimicrobial resistance' (Section 3.9.) and surveillance for scrapie (Appendix 3.8.5.) and for foot and mouth disease (Appendix 3.8.6.) were adopted and have been added to this edition of the Terrestrial Code.
The development of these standards, guidelines and recommendations is the result of the continuous work of one of the OIE's Specialist Commissions, the International Animal Health Code Commission (now called the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission [in brief 'Code Commission']). This Commission, which comprises six elected members experienced in regulatory veterinary science drawn from all OIE regions, meets several times yearly to address its work programme. The Commission draws upon the expertise of internationally renowned specialists to prepare draft texts for new chapters of the Terrestrial Code or revise existing chapters in light of advances in veterinary science. The views of the Delegates of Member Countries are systematically sought through the circulation of draft and revised texts. As well, the Code Commission collaborates closely with the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission on issues needing a harmonised approach, and with the Biological Standards and Scientific Commissions to ensure the Code Commission is utilising the latest scientific information in its work.
The value of the Terrestrial Code lies in the fact that measures published in it are the result of consensus among the veterinary authorities of OIE Member Countries.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) conferred on the OIE new responsibilities under international law by specifying 'the standards, guidelines and recommendations developed under the auspices of the OIE' as the international standards for animal health and zoonoses. The SPS Agreement is aimed at establishing a multilateral framework of rules and disciplines to guide the development, adoption and enforcement of sanitary measures in order to minimise their negative effects on international trade. Essentially, two options are available to Member Countries to provide a scientific justification for an import health measure. The first, and most encouraged by the WTO, is for veterinary authorities to base their import health measures on the OIE's international standards, guidelines and recommendations. Where these do not exist, or in cases where a government chooses to apply stricter measures, the importing country must be able to show that its measure is based on a scientific assessment of the potential health risks. Guidelines for conducting risk analyses are described in the Terrestrial Code. The Terrestrial Code thus forms an integral part of the regulatory reference system established by the WTO.
The Terrestrial Code is published annually in the three official OIE languages (English, French and Spanish), and more recently in Russian. The contents of the Terrestrial Code are available on the OIE Web site at http://www.oie.int.