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This report describes the most significant epidemiological events that occurred in the world in 2000. The analysis is based on information received from OIE Member Countries and non member countries up to 20 April 2001.


1. Foot and mouth disease

1.1. Africa

In 2000, no outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) were reported in Algeria or Morocco, or in Tunisia, where an epizootic occurred in 1999.

Outbreaks of FMD disease occurred in many countries on the African continent, though the virus serotypes involved were not systematically identified. As in previous years, the available results of laboratory tests show that serotypes O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 were circulating in several countries whereas virus C was found only in Kenya.

In Egypt, where the last outbreak of FMD had been in December 1997, an outbreak of the disease was reported in June 2000 in Fayoum governorate.

In Malawi, after a year's absence, the disease reappeared in May 2000 in the district from Mzimba, situated in the north-west of the country.

In Zambia, three outbreaks, one located in the north and the other two in the west of the country, were caused by cross border movements of cattle.

In Namibia, where the disease had not been reported since 1994, an outbreak, due to serotype SAT 1, appeared in August 2000 in Katima Mulilo veterinary district, Eastern Caprivi. As the area lies in an FMD-infected zone, annual prophylactic vaccination is practised. The disease was controlled by vaccinating cattle around the focus of infection and by controlling cattle movements.

In South Africa, an outbreak of FMD due to serotype O occurred in a piggery in Kwazulu-Natal province in September 2000. This was the first time that serotype O had been discovered in South Africa, and also the first time that an outbreak of FMD had occurred outside the FMD control zone since 1957. Investigations were immediately undertaken and showed that pigs had been illegally fed with swill obtained from a ship in transit in the port of Durban. All farms within a radius of 10 km of the affected piggery were placed under quarantine and a 20-km-radius surveillance zone was set up around the restriction zone, and extensive zoosanitary measures were instituted. Subsequently, infected animals were found in two other establishments and in a communal area. Stamping out was applied in the affected establishments, and the animals within a radius of 3 km around the infected establishments were also slaughtered. In December 2000, the stamping out policy was called into question. It was decided to abandon this policy and apply limited vaccination within a radius of 15 km around the outbreak.

In November 2000, serotype SAT 1 affected 8 cattle in a consignment of 110 animals delivered to Matsapha abattoir (near Manzini) in Swaziland. The animals had come from the South African province of Mpumalanga. All the imported animals were slaughtered and the carcases buried under veterinary supervision. No contamination of local herds resulted from this incident which occurred in an abattoir. An investigation was immediately conducted in South Africa in the feedlot for cattle and pigs in Middelburg district (Mpumalanga Province) from which the imported consignment had originated. Lesions were detected in 30 cattle. Tests carried out on the samples obtained from these animals confirmed the presence of FMD virus type SAT 1. This was the first time since 1957 that the presence of this serotype had been observed outside the FMD control zone in South Africa. Sequencing showed that the virus SAT 1 involved was similar to the one circulating in African buffalo in the southern part of the Kruger National Park. Within the FMD control zone, the infection was confirmed on 15 December 2000 in samples from three establishments. In two of these establishments, there was an inapparent infection in indigenous cattle, while in the third establishment clinical signs were observed in five animals. An emergency vaccination programme was implemented in the affected zone.

In Swaziland, FMD did not only involve imported animals in 2000: after the surveillance measures had been strengthened in all the dip tanks in the country, the disease (also caused by serotype SAT 1) was detected at two dip tanks (Macakula and Nhfolu) in the north of Lubombo region in December 2000. The outbreak was located within the existing buffer zone. Information gathered from the cordon patrols revealed that in previous weeks the cordon fences had been cut on several occasions, leading to the suspicion that animals had been moved illegally across the border. Quarantine and surveillance zones were delineated. Vaccination of cattle, sheep and goats using a trivalent SAT 1, 2 and 3 vaccine was carried out in the 10-km-radius "high risk" area of the quarantine zone.

1.2. Americas

The countries of North America, Central America, the West Indies, the Guyanas, Chile and the north-west zone of the department of Choco in Colombia remained FMD free without vaccination.

In Argentina, ten bovines illegally imported from a neighbouring country were discovered in August 2000 in a jointly owned establishment in the province of Formosa located near the border. In application of the regulations in force, these animals were slaughtered and their carcases destroyed once blood samples had been taken for serological screening for FMD. Four of these animals tested positive. In one of these animals, the oesophageal-pharyngeal liquid sample led to the isolation of a strain of FMD virus type A. As a precautionary measure, stamping out was applied to all the animals kept in the jointly owned farm, and the 13 shipments of animals which, during this period, had been dispatched from the border zone of the province of Formosa to the remainder of the country were tested and monitored. The testing produced positive serological results in two bovines in a farm in the province of Corrientes and a bovine in a farm in the province of Entre Rios. Stamping out was applied to these animals and in-contact animals. A surveillance zone was set up in the province of Formosa and in the parts of the provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios considered to be at risk. It was decided to prohibit, throughout the country, the movement of FMD-susceptible animals to wintering farms. Samples taken during a serological survey, implemented in the whole of the country to verify the disease status, tested negative.

In May 2000, Brazil decided to halt vaccination against FMD in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. In the same month, a zone of the country comprising several States (Federal District, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná and São Paulo) was recognised as an "FMD free zone where vaccination is practised". In the State of of Rio Grande do Sul, 22 outbreaks of FMD due to virus O were recorded from July to September 2000 in smallholdings, leading to the slaughter of the animals in the outbreaks and on adjoining properties (a total of 659 properties) and the destruction of their carcases. Consequently, the zone comprising the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina had its OIE-recognised status of "FMD free zone where vaccination is practised" suspended.

In Colombia, an outbreak of FMD (virus type O) was reported in August 2000 in Necocli municipality, department of Antioquia, i.e. in the zone that Colombia wished to add to the zone already recognised by the OIE as an "FMD free zone where vaccination is not practised".

No FMD outbreaks occurred in Paraguay, which, since May 1997, has been included in the OIE list of "FMD free countries where vaccination is practised". The country stopped vaccinating against the disease in July 1999. In August 2000, the Government of Paraguay declared an epidemiological state of alert along the border, as a precautionary measure to prevent the introduction of the disease. Strategic vaccination against FMD was implemented in the areas bordering Argentina and Brazil.

In Uruguay, an FMD outbreak, caused by a virus type O strain, occurred in October 2000 in an establishment with fattening stock in the department of Artigas (north of the country). The likely source of infection was thought to be a sow that had consumed feed of animal origin. It was decided to stamp out all susceptible animals in the focal zone that was delineated as a result of this discovery. In November 2000, the results of clinical and serological screening carried out in the country, and especially in the surveillance zone in the department of Artigas, followed by the placing of sentinel animals in in this department in December 2000, demonstrated that the FMD virus was not circulating.

1.3. Asia

In Kazakhstan, 11 outbreaks due to serotypes O and A were reported during the first six months of 2000. In Tajikistan, two outbreaks due to serotype O occurred in June.

In Korea, where the disease had been absent since 1934, an FMD epizootic occurred in March and April 2000; it affected 15 farms in three provinces of the country. DNA sequence analysis of the VP1 gene of the isolated virus type O showed close similarity to strains O/TAW/1/99 and O/Kinmen/TAW/99. Stamping out was applied in the affected farms and farms in the vicinity (i.e. a total of 181 farms and 2,223 animals). Given the severity of the symptoms observed in cattle, emergency vaccination was applied to cattle in the protection zones set up around the outbreaks (nearly 600,000 animals vaccinated in 11,052 farms). As no other outbreaks occurred, the movement restrictions which had been imposed were lifted in May 2000.

In March 2000, an FMD outbreak, caused by a virus type O strain, was confirmed in Japan in a farm in Myazaki prefecture (Kyushu island). The previous FMD episode in Japan dated back to 1908. In April and May, the disease was detected in three other farms (two in Myazaki prefecture, and another on Hokkaido island). In September 2000, more than three months having elapsed since the last case was observed and the implementation of stamping out, and serological surveillance having detected no signs of FMD virus, Japan regained its status as an FMD free country where vaccination is not practised.

In Mongolia, which had not experienced an FMD episode since 1973, the disease reappeared in April 2000 in the province of Dornogovi. Twenty-six herds with cattle, small ruminants and camels were affected. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the virus type O isolated showed that its protein VP1 was 98.2% similar to that of strain O/Taiwan/99 and 97.2% similar to that of strain O/Russia/2000. All the sick animals were slaughtered and their carcases destroyed, and ring vaccination was applied. The last cases were reported in June 2000.

In the People's Republic of China, FMD outbreaks were reported only in Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region).

In Taipei China, six FMD outbreaks were reported in 2000: three in herds of cattle, two in herds of goats and one in pigs in the holding pen of an abattoir. Virus type O was responsible for all these outbreaks. Stamping out and vaccination continue to be applied in the country as control measures.

1.4. Europe

In May 2000, the OIE included Ukraine in the list of "FMD free countries where vaccination is not practised".

In Armenia, outbreaks of the disease occurred in July and August 2000. In Georgia, 21 outbreaks—only one due to virus type O and the remainder due to virus type Asia 1—were reported in Gori district in May 2000.

In Greece, FMD outbreaks due to serotype Asia 1 occurred in July 2000. Twelve outbreaks were reported in Evros prefecture and two in Xanthi prefecture. Greece applied a stamping-out policy without recourse to vaccination to eradicate this episode.

In Turkey, a vaccination campaign using a trivalent vaccine (O, A, Asia 1) was conducted in the Thrace region in autumn 2000.

In Russia an FMD outbreak occurred in April 2000 in pigs raised in the territory of Primorski (extreme east of the country). The virus type O isolated belonged to the Pan Asiatic group.

1.5. Middle East

In 2000, FMD continued to circulate enzootically in the greater part of the Middle East.

Foot and mouth disease virus serotype SAT 2 was isolated for the first time in the region. The OIE World Reference Laboratory for FMD detected this serotype in samples collected in April and May 2000 in a dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. This serotype was not included in the vaccines used by that country or by neighbouring countries. In June 2000, Kuwait reported cases of FMD in nomadic sheep originating from a neighbouring country. Virus serotype SAT 2 was isolated.

2. Vesicular stomatitis

As in previous years, vesicular stomatitis was diagnosed only in the Americas.

In Central America the disease continued to be reported in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Panama.

In South America, the highest occurrence of the disease was again in Colombia (more than 400 outbreaks).

3. Swine vesicular disease

Only one country reported to the OIE the presence of swine vesicular disease on its territory in 2000: Italy (5 outbreaks). Three of these outbreaks were reported in Lombardia, a region where the previous outbreak had occurred in February 1999.

4. Rinderpest

In 2000, the presence of the rinderpest was reported only by Pakistan. The disease affected buffalo in a farm in South Karachi district (Sindh province, in the south of the country) in September 2000. The farmer involved had purchased 18 buffalo in Punjab province, where a mild strain of rinderpest virus causing atypical signs was rumoured to be circulating. All the animals from the affected farm were vaccinated against rinderpest and restrictions were placed on the movements of animals. The results of clinical and serological testing conducted in South Karachi district and the surrounding areas gave negative results. This was also the case with the investigations conducted in Kamalia, Arifwala and Okara districts in the Punjab.

In Kenya, rinderpest surveillance operations in wildlife were undertaken at the beginning of 2000 in the Tana delta (outside the zone declared provisionally free of rinderpest in 1999). Tests carried out on a total of 18 buffalo, 18 warthogs and 5 giraffes demonstrated the presence of antibodies directed against rinderpest virus in a buffalo and a warthog, both aged less than three years.

Iran notified its intention to stop vaccination against rinderpest in four provinces in the south and south-west of the country. A surveillance system has been set up in these four provinces. Given the increased level of rinderpest virus antibody titres in the livestock population aged over two years, vaccination against rinderpest has not been practised for over two years in this category of animals.

Other countries submitted declarations to the OIE stating that all or part of their territory was "provisionally free from rinderpest"; these were the following:

  • In Africa: in December 2000, the Central African Republic declared the western zone (comprising 24 sub-prefectures) of the country provisionally free from rinderpest. In this zone, vaccination against rinderpest was halted and clinical and serological surveillance were intensified.
  • in the Middle East: Lebanon (declaration received in March 2000).

By 31 December 2000, 23 countries had declared that they were rinderpest free, and 6 countries had declared a zone to be provisionally free of rinderpest.

5. Peste des petits ruminants

As in previous years, peste des petits ruminants affected only certain parts of Africa and Asia.

Thirteen outbreaks were reported in Iran in 2000, the previous outbreak having been in December 1999.

In Nepal, the number of outbreaks showed a marked increase, from 71 outbreaks in 1999 to 298 in 2000.

In Turkey, 43 outbreaks were reported in 2000 compared to only 7 in 1999.

6. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia

6.1. Africa

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is still a major concern on the African continent, with the exception of North Africa.

Guinea, which reported 6 outbreaks in 1999, reported none in 2000.

The incidence of the disease increased in Namibia, from 4 confirmed outbreaks in 1999 to 18 in 2000.

In Zambia, where the disease had not been reported since March 1999, an outbreak occurred in Northern Province in February 2000.

6.2. Europe

Portugal, which had reported 1 outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in 1999, reported none in 2000.

7. Lumpy skin disease

The number of outbreaks reported in 2000 (400) in South Africa almost doubled compared to 1999 (204).

In Côte d'Ivoire, three outbreaks of lumpy skin disease were reported in July 2000, these being the first outbreaks since 1997.

In Mauritius, where lumpy skin disease had never been reported, an outbreak was recorded in September 2000. The disease was introduced by cattle imported from a country on the African continent. In all, around 175 animals were affected, and were slaughtered. Almost the entire national herd was vaccinated.

In Senegal 12 outbreaks, the first since September 1998, occurred during the second half of 2000.

In the other countries affected, the disease situation remained virtually the same as the previous year.

8. Rift Valley fever

Rift Valley fever was identified in Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

In September 2000, cases of Rift Valley fever were reported in both humans and animals in the Jazan area, in Saudi Arabia. According the World Health Organization, as of 1 November, 516 persons with severe suspected Rift Valley fever requiring hospitalisation had been reported. The lethality rate in humans was 17%. Of the 180 documented cases, 76% reported having been in close contact with animals, and in particular with sheep and goats; 64% indicated that they had been exposed to animals that had died or had aborted. Almost all the patients stated that they had been bitten by mosquitoes, and that there were mosquitoes in their houses. Entomological studies evidenced two species of mosquito, Culex tritaeniorrhynchus and Aedes caspius, in the agricultural areas irrigated by flood water at the foot of the mountains or in the foothills of Al Ardah district, which was the epicentre of the flare-up where the first human cases were reported. The preliminary laboratory investigations isolated the Rift Valley fever virus from the two species referred to above. A regional study to determine the prevalence antibodies directed against the Rift Valley fever virus in domestic ungulates, particularly goats and sheep, was carried out in Jazan and Asir provinces. The prevalence of these antibodies was ³ 90% in the Al Ardah district.

Rift Valley fever has also become a major public health problem in Yemen. The first cases of haemorrhagic fever suggestive of the disease were reported on 10 and 11 September 2000. Al-Zuhrah province, in Al-Hodeidah (Al Hudaydah) governorate, was at the centre of the episode. Sporadic cases were reported in humans and in animals in Hajjah, Saadah and Al-Mahahaweet (Al Mahwit) Governorates. According the World Health Organization, between 7 August and 7 November 2000, 1,087 suspect case-patients were identified, 121 of whom died. As of 21 October 2000, a total of 7,476 animals had been affected by the disease (abortions), of which 1,939 died.

Following the report of the disease in the two countries referred to above, Kuwait vaccinated its ruminant population. From 1998 to 2000, Eritrea conducted a serological survey on Rift Valley fever based on random sampling of small ruminants and the use of ELISA to test for specific antibodies. The results of the survey demonstrated that the causal virus was not circulating in the country.

9. Bluetongue

The epidemiological event involving bluetongue that most marked the year 2000 was the appearance of the disease in three European countries where it had never previously been reported: France, Italy and Spain. They were preceded by outbreaks in Algeria and Tunisia.

In Tunisia, the first cases appeared in December 1999 and January 2000. After a period of remission during the following months, due to unfavourable climatic conditions for the vectors, the disease was again reported in June 2000. A total of 92 outbreaks were recorded from June to October 2000. The first sheep vaccination campaign, using a monovalent (type 2) attenuated virus vaccine began on 30 August 2000.

In Algeria, where the disease had never been reported, cases occurred in July 2000 in districts along the border with Tunisia. In the week before the first reports of the disease, strong winds blew for several days in the direction Tunisia – Algeria. These winds may have transported infected vectors. Disinsectisation operations were conducted in the affected areas. From July to September 2000, a total of 28 outbreaks were recorded.

In August 2000, the first outbreaks were reported on the island of Sardinia, in Italy. In November 2000, the disease was also observed in Sicily and in Reggio Calabria province, in the south of Italy. A total of 6,801 outbreaks were recorded. Bluetongue virus serotype 2 was isolated.

In Spain the first cases were observed in October 2000, in the Balearic Islands. Spain experienced a total of 450 outbreaks. Also in October, clinical signs of the disease were observed in France, in flocks on the island of Corsica. Systematic vaccination of sheep was undertaken there using a monovalent serotype 2 vaccine.

Bulgaria and Greece, which had experienced an epizootic of bluetongue in 1999, did not report any cases in 2000. In Bulgaria, sheep were vaccinated in March 2000 in the settlements previously affected in Burgas, Yambol, Haskovo and Kardjali regions, as well as in areas situated within a 10-km band along the border with Greece and Turkey (Kardjali region). Serological surveillance was also conducted, with samples being taken from young calves and kids in the zones at risk, from sentinel herds and flocks, and from wild animals; no evidence of any new incursion of the causal virus was detected in the south of the country.

In Turkey, which had experienced 15 outbreaks in 1999, only two outbreaks occurred in 2000, both in August, in Izmir district.

10. Sheep pox and goat pox

The sheep pox and goat pox situation was largely unchanged compared to previous years.

An outbreak occurred in Greece in November 2000 in Evros prefecture. The previous outbreak had been in November 1998. The affected flock was slaughtered and the carcases destroyed. In the absence of any further clinical cases, and after a serological survey had been carried out, all the restrictions that had been imposed were lifted at the end of December 2000.

In Turkmenistan, sheep pox had not been reported since 1997. The country reported the presence of the disease during the last quarter of 2000.

11. African horse sickness

No significant epidemiological events relating to African horse sickness were reported to the OIE in 2000. It should be noted that Botswana, which reported 22 outbreaks of the disease in 1999, reported none in 2000.

12. African swine fever

12.1. Africa

Madagascar, where African swine fever was reported for the first time during the latter half of 1998, continued to suffer losses to the disease in 2000. A total of 16 outbreaks [from January to August] were reported.

In Mozambique, four establishments south of the Save river were affected by the disease. There had been no outbreaks in the area since October 1998.

12.2. Europe

The disease was only reported in Italy, in the island of Sardinia.

In Portugal, following an outbreak of African swine fever in November 1999, a surveillance programme was set up. Samples were taken from several thousand pigs and all the establishments at risk were inspected. The programme did not detect any specific antibodies or African swine fever virus.

13. Classical swine fever

13.1. Africa

In Mauritius, an outbreak of classical swine fever was reported in August 2000.

13.1. Americas

In Colombia, only two outbreaks of the disease were reported in 2000, whereas there had been 23 in 1999.

13.2. Europe

In 2000, Germany reported classical swine fever in two holdings (for breeding and fattening, respectively). Germany also detected a considerable number (190) of infected wild boar (Sus scrofa).

In Austria, the disease was diagnosed in a young wild boar found dead in a hunting area in Lower Austria in November 2000. In Luxembourg, 15 wild boar were found to be carrying specific antibodies. No cases occurred in domestic pigs in either of these countries.

A single outbreak occurred in Bulgaria, and resulted from non-vaccinated pigs being fed with unsterilised kitchen and abattoir waste.

In the United Kingdom / Great Britain a classical swine fever epizootic occurred from August to November 2000. The disease was detected on 4 August 2000 in a pig herd in the county of Suffolk, England. Shortly after, other outbreaks were confirmed in four other herds (two in Suffolk, one in Essex, and one in Norfolk). All the herds in which classical swine fever had been confirmed were owned by or contracted to one breeding/production company. An epidemiological investigation carried out in one of the affected herds showed that the infection could have been on the premises from mid-June. This herd is thought to have been the source of two other outbreaks. All the rearing and fattening premises which had received pigs born after 1 May in the breeding unit were traced and placed under movement restrictions. Subsequently, 11 other outbreaks were confirmed (7 in Norfolk and 4 in Suffolk). DNA sequencing of the was identical, suggesting that they had all been caused by the same virus of genotype 2.1. According to the European Community Reference Laboratory in Hannover (Germany), there were no reports of other recent outbreaks in Europe caused by genotype 2.1 strain viruses. The infected establishments were depopulated. All the control measures relating to the 16 outbreaks were lifted on 30 December 2000.

14. Highly pathogenic avian influenza

The epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza that began in Italy in December 1999 continued in 2000. Between January and April, 376 outbreaks were reported involving turkey farms, and broiler and layer flocks, in the following regions of Italy: Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Emilia-Romagna, Lombardia, Umbria, Piemonte, Trento Autonomous Province and Sicily. In October 2000, stamping out having been applied (11 million birds) and six months having elapsed since the elimination of the last affected animal, Italy declared it was once more free of the disease.

15. Newcastle disease

15.1. Americas

In Brazil, three outbreaks of Newcastle disease occurred in the State of Rio of Janeiro in July 2000. They involved non industrial farms serving local markets. Stamping out was applied.

In Honduras, where the disease had not been reported since June 1996, outbreaks occurred in May and again in July 2000. All the affected animals were slaughtered and vaccination operations were undertaken in areas adjoining the outbreaks.

In Mexico, the presence of the Newcastle disease was confirmed in March 2000 in the region known as "La Laguna", comprising districts in the States of Coahuila and Durango. A total of 92 broiler farms were found to be infected. Farms where clinical signs of the disease were observed and where the virus was isolated were depopulated.

15.2. Asia

In January and May 2000, Japan reported five outbreaks of Newcastle disease in chickens in three hobby flocks and two commercial farms in Chiba and Ibaraki prefectures.

15.3. Europe

In Italy, an epizootic of Newcastle disease began in May 2000. The first outbreak was diagnosed in Piemonte region. Thereafter, numerous outbreaks were reported in several regions in northern and central Italy. From the results of epidemiological investigations, the disease appeared to have spread from a hatchery and several dealers' flocks in Emilia-Romagna region. A total of 256 outbreaks were recorded in 2000. A compulsory vaccination campaign was carried out in the regions worst affected. In all farms where Newcastle disease was confirmed, all the birds were slaughtered and destroyed.

15.4. Oceania

In Australia, eight new outbreaks of Newcastle disease were reported in January and February 2000, following the outbreaks in 1999. They occurred in the Cumberland surveillance zone, encompassing the Greater Sydney region, and Tamworth–Moonbi zone in New South Wales.

A National Newcastle Disease Management Committee was set up to oversee a national survey of Newcastle disease viruses and a national management plan. This plan involved targeted vaccination in two designated risk areas in New South Wales, restrictions on the movement of poultry products, and implementation of standard approved procedures for clean-up, disinfection and other routine sanitary operations. The national survey was completed in December and showed no evidence of the presence of virulent Newcastle disease virus or of related precursor viruses.


1. New World screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax)

Costa Rica declared that New World screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) had been eradicated from its territory, the last case having been observed in June 1999.

Two imported animals, a horse and a cat, were found to be infested with New World screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) in the United States of America, the first in March and the second in December 2000.

2. Theileriosis

In the United Kingdom / Great Britain, theileriosis was confirmed in a dairy herd maintained by a research institute in Scotland, following post-mortem examination of an animal that died on the farm. It seems likely that the infection occurred as a result of cross contamination, due to the presence at the institute of animals experimentally infected with Theileria annulata within the framework of research. The 25 other cattle found to be infected were voluntarily destroyed by the institute.

3. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

In 2000, the following three countries were added to the list of countries and territories where bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been reported in indigenous cattle:

  • Germany: 7 cases;
  • Denmark: 1 case;
  • Spain: 2 cases.

The other countries which continued to report cases in indigenous animals were as follows:

  • Belgium: 9 cases (3 in 1999);
  • France: 161 cases (31 in 1999);
  • Ireland: 145 cases (91 in 1999);
  • Netherlands: 2 cases (2 also in 1999);
  • Portugal: 163 cases (170 in 1999);
  • Switzerland: 33 cases (50 in 1999);
  • United Kingdom: 1,537 cases (2,301 in 1999).

In France, a testing programme, using a rapid diagnostic test, began on 8 June 2000. The programme targeted fallen stock or animals subjected to emergency slaughter in areas in the west of France, where the majority of cases detected under the clinical surveillance system had been detected. It is planned to carry out 40,000 tests in these areas, and 8,000 more in the remainder of the country.

In Portugal, a case was diagnosed in the Azores Islands in a cow imported from a European country.

4. Scrapie

In Austria, a case of scrapie was diagnosed in a farm in the Federal Province of Upper Austria in January 2000. Stamping out was applied in the affected flock and 10 in-contact farms.

In Spain, a case of scrapie was confirmed in July 2000. All the sheep in the affected flock were destroyed.

5. Maedi-visna

In Chile, where maedi-visna is considered to be exotic, the disease was diagnosed in a sheep of the Latxa breed. An epidemiological survey was carried out in farms which had received sheep of the Latxa breed, imported in 1995, or had sheep that had been in contact with the imported animals. Of the 76 farms covered, 8 had positive reactors. On infected farms, a control programme was put into effect, with slaughter of all reactors and their offspring.

6. Contagious equine metritis

In 1997 and 1998, isolates resembling Taylorella equigenitalis had been obtained from donkeys in the United States of America. In 2000, the Delegate of the United States of America informed the OIE that advanced testing revealed the existence of a non-pathogenic microorganism resembling T. equigenitalis, but corresponding to a different species which did not appear to cause the disease. On the basis of this evidence, the United States of America declared itself free from contagious equine metritis.

7. Equine piroplasmosis

In Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China), a horse was found to have antibodies directed against Babesia equi during a pre-export blood test carried out in February 2000. During the previous three years, sera had been taken from horses for export without any such antibodies ever having been detected. Furthermore, clinical examination of 1,219 horses did not reveal the presence of any ticks.

8. Glanders

Surveillance activities for glanders were intensified in Brazil. In December 1999, cases had been diagnosed in the States of Alagoas and Pernambouc. In 2000, other cases were detected in the States of Ceará, Maranhao, Piaui and Sergipe. Movement restrictions were placed on equids in all the affected States.

9. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease

In March 2000, rabbit haemorrhagic disease was diagnosed in the State of Iowa in the United States of America. In a farm with 27 animals, 25 died. The two remaining rabbits were slaughtered and the farm was placed under quarantine. No new cases of the disease were subsequently reported.

In December 2000, the same disease occurred in three production units in Cuba (Havana province and Havana City province).

10. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

In Finland, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia was reported for the first time, in May 2000. The disease occurred in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a fish farm.

In Japan, where the disease had never been reported, 18 outbreaks occurred in the south-west of the country in farmed Japanese flounder (Paralychthys olivaceus).

11. Bonamiosis

An outbreak of bonamiosis occurred in Foveaux Strait, in New Zealand. The infection was detected in different sites in several hundred wild oysters.

12. Perkinsosis

The causal agent of perkinsosis was isolated in New Zealand in wild populations of cockles (Austrovenus stutchburyi) (family Veneridae), and in two other bivalve species: Macomona liliana (family Tellinidae) and Barbatia novae-zelandiae (family Arcidae). These species are abundant along the coast of New Zealand. No clinical signs were reported.

13. Varroosis

In April 2000, varroosis was identified in New Zealand for the first time. The first apiaries infested were discovered in South Auckland. The parasite was discovered in 16 of the 78 apiaries inspected in the immediate vicinity of the first apiaries infested. A control zone was defined and movement controls were placed on affected apiaries.


1. Infectious salmon anaemia

In 2000, infectious salmon anaemia was confirmed in a sea farm in the Faroe Islands. There were no other suspected cases in the Faroe Islands. Arrangements were made to destroy the infected fish and to slaughter all the remaining fish in the sea farm.

2. Chronic wasting disease

Chronic wasting disease was confirmed in elk in four farms in the province of Saskatchewan in Canada, from March 2000. All these outbreaks appear to have had the same source. All the farms with confirmed cases were placed under quarantine.

3. West Nile fever

Between August and October 2000, 60 horses were found to be suffering from West Nile fever in the United States of America in the States of Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Of these, 23 died or had to be euthanised. Several other non-human mammals were also affected: a chipmunk, two bats, a rabbit, a skunk and a squirrel. There were 21 human cases of encephalitis due to West Nile fever virus, one of which was fatal. This shows that after the episode which occurred in New York City and the neighbouring counties in 1999 the virus succeeded in surviving the winter 1999-2000. Mosquito control measures were applied in the affected areas.

In a limited area in the south of France, spanning the departments of Bouches-du-Rhône, Gard and Hérault, cases of West Nile fever were serologically confirmed in 54 horses, the first cases having appeared on 8 September 2000. All the affected horses originated from the region. In the affected area, no cases of the disease had been diagnosed for some thirty years. The virus isolated in this new episode was phylogenetically similar to viruses isolated in horses in Morocco in 1996, Italy in 1998 and in mosquitoes in Senegal in 1993. Sanitary police measures were implemented, notably involving restrictions on the movement of equids and mosquito control operations. No cases having been detected from 3 November 2000 onwards, these measures were lifted on 30 November 2000. No humans were affected.

4. Nipah disease

A programme for Nipah disease control and eradication of the causal virus was established in Peninsular Malaysia when the disease appeared in 1999. Within the framework of the third phase of this programme, which started in 2000, a serological testing campaign was carried out in domestic pigs, with elimination of herds considered to be infected. The pigs from two farms in the State of Perak and three farms in Sarawak were also eliminated following an analysis of samples or the detection of IgM antibodies in farm workers looking after these animals.