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Foot and mouth disease

In Georgia, an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD), caused by virus type O, was reported in Gori district, in June 2000.

In Greece, an epizootic of FMD began in July 2000. A total of nine outbreaks were reported in the Prefectures of Evros and Xanthi. Virus type Asia 1 was isolated. The OIE World Reference Laboratory for foot and mouth disease (Pirbright Laboratory, United Kingdom), has confirmed that the 'Greek' isolate of FMD virus type Asia 1 is genetically identical to the Turkish strain isolated in various parts of the latter country since late 1999. European Community measures regarding FMD control were implemented. A stamping-out/non-vaccination policy was applied. Protection and surveillance zones around the outbreaks were established.

In Kazakhstan, 11 outbreaks of the disease were reported from March to June 2000. Virus types O and A were isolated. Animals in the outbreak zones and the zones at risk were vaccinated.

In Kyrgyzstan, in the first half of the year, 676 600 head of cattle and 758 900 sheep and goats were inoculated against this disease for prophylactic purposes.

In Russia, where the disease had not been reported since 1986, an outbreak was reported in Primorskiy territory in April 2000. Virus type O of the pan-Asian group was isolated. Only pigs were affected and all of the animals were destroyed. Ring vaccination of pigs was implemented.

In Tadjikistan, two outbreaks of the disease were reported in the region of Gorno-Badakhshan in June 2000. The last outbreak before this year dated back to 1997.

In Turkey, 68 outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (virus types A, O and Asia 1) were reported between January and July 2000. No outbreaks were reported in the Thrace region of that country during that period.

Swine vesicular disease

In Italy, three outbreaks of swine vesicular disease were reported between March and April 2000.

Peste des petits ruminants

In Israel, four outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants were reported in the first half of 2000; nine outbreaks were reported during the same period in Turkey.

Sheep pox

In Israel, five outbreaks of sheep pox were reported in the first half of 2000; fifteen outbreaks were reported during the same period in Turkey.

African swine fever

In Italy, African swine fever continued to be reported on the island of Sardinia. From February to July 2000, ten outbreaks of the disease were recorded.

Classical swine fever

In the United Kingdom/Great Britain, where classical swine fever had not been reported since 1987, six outbreaks occurred in Essex (1), Norfolk (2) and Suffolk (3). Studies conducted at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency in Weybridge suggest that the virus causing the outbreaks is the same in all cases, belongs to the genotype 2.1 and is more related to, but still not identical to, the viruses isolated from limited outbreaks in Austria and Switzerland in 1993, and in Italy in 1992 and 1995. One of the infected herds was a breeding herd that had supplied weaned pigs to the other herds. An epidemiological enquiry carried out on this holding suggested that infection might have been present there since mid-June. The infected herds were destroyed and 3-km protection and 10-km surveillance zones were established around each of the infected holdings. As all of the infected herds were owned by or contracted to an integrated breeding/production company, the decision was taken to trace, and place under official veterinary control, all rearing and fattening holdings which had received pigs from the infected breeding herd after 1 May. In addition, all breeding herds owned by the breeding/production company would be traced, placed under official veterinary control and tested for classical swine fever as would the five primary breeding herds that had supplied the infected breeding herd after 1 April. These measures were additional to the normal tracings of people, vehicles and livestock onto and off the infected holding.

The following countries, which reported outbreaks of classical swine fever in 1999, have reported further outbreaks since January 2000: Bulgaria, FRY (Serbia and Montenegro), Germany, Italy, Russia, Slovakia, and Switzerland.

In Bulgaria, a single outbreak was reported in March 2000 in the region of Dobrich.

In FRY (Serbia and Montenegro), 56 outbreaks occurred from January to May 2000.

In Germany, 121 outbreaks of the disease were reported in wild boars, from January to July 2000. In July 2000, two outbreaks were reported in domestic pigs in the Land of Rhineland - Palatinate. All the animals on the farms were destroyed.

In Italy, on the island of Sardinia, two outbreaks occurred in February and one in June 2000.

In Russia, five outbreaks were recorded from February to June 2000.

In Slovakia, ten outbreaks have been recorded since the beginning of the year in wild boars. Due to the possibility of new outbreaks occurring in domestic pigs, vaccination was carried out in these animals.

In Switzerland, ten outbreaks were reported in wild boars in the canton of Tessin, between January and April 2000.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza

In Italy, an epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza began in Italy in December 1999 and lasted until May 2000. From January to May 2000, 316 outbreaks were recorded, mainly in the Veneto and Lombardia regions. Stamping-out, cleansing and disinfection were implemented. A low pathogenic strain identified as subtype H7N1 had already been circulating in the country as from the beginning of March 1999 in numerous commercial turkey and layer flocks in the Lombardia and Veneto Regions. At the end of December 1999, the same subtype H7N1, isolated in a turkey flock, was recognised to be a high pathogenic strain, indicating that the virus had mutated. The infected and in-contact flocks were destroyed. Furthermore, a preventive slaughter campaign was carried out in all the flocks located in the areas where numerous outbreaks had been confirmed.

Newcastle disease

In Italy, 231 outbreaks of Newcastle disease occurred in several northern and central regions from May to July 2000. It seems that the disease spread from a hatchery and from a dealer’s flock located in the Emilia Romagna Region. In all the flocks in which Newcastle disease has been confirmed officially, all the birds are slaughtered and destroyed. A compulsory vaccination campaign is underway in the regions most highly affected by the disease. Bird consignments must undergo clinical and serological controls when moved into or out of the regions where the compulsory vaccination plan is in force.

In Russia, three outbreaks of the disease were reported in the district of Leningrad and in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkarie from January to February 2000.



The disease was reported in the first half of 2000 in Italy, Russia and Turkey.

In Italy, seven regions have implemented vaccination plans in areas at risk.


In Austria, two cases of rabies were reported (two foxes in Burgenland) during the first semester of 2000. In the spring of 2000, 443 200 baits for the oral immunisation of foxes were distributed in all rabies infected districts.

In Italy, an oral vaccination campaign for foxes was implemented in the border area of Friuli Venezia Giulia Region.

In Kyrgyzstan, 18 bovines, 10 horses, 7 sheep and 29 cats and dogs contracted rabies during the first half of 2000.

In Russia, 290 outbreaks in domestic animals and 214 in wild animals were recorded during the first semester of 2000.

In Slovakia, the eradication programme has been recently intensified and extended. During the period from 18 March to 16 April 2000, the area-wide oral vaccination of foxes against rabies was carried out on the entire territory.

In Turkey, the disease continued to be reported in domestic animals during the first six months of 2000; 219 cases were diagnosed.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases diagnosed in 2000 (up to 24 August 2000) are as follows:

Belgium 4, Denmark 1, France 28, Great Britain 800 (necessarily incomplete as calculated by date of service of restriction; as of 18 August 2000), Ireland 57, Portugal 80, Switzerland 22.


In Austria, scrapie was diagnosed in a three-year-old ewe destined for breeding, which belonged to a flock of 25 sheep of Texel breed. All the animals on the affected farm and on 14 contact farms were culled and destroyed. A surveillance programme was drawn up in the establishments that had delivered sheep to the infected establishment since 1995.

In Norway, scrapie was diagnosed in one sheep flock during the first half of 2000.

Contact : Maria Zampaglione

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