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Animal health status of Member Countries in Africa for the year 2000

List A Diseases

Foot and mouth disease

In 2000, foot and mouth disease (FMD) was reported in northern Africa: Egypt; western Africa: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mauritania (virus type O), Niger and Senegal; central Africa: Chad; eastern Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya (virus types A, O, C and SAT 2) and Tanzania (virus type O, SAT 1 and SAT 2); southern Africa: Angola, Malawi (virus type SAT 1), Namibia (virus type SAT 1), South Africa (virus type O and SAT 1), Swaziland (virus type SAT 1) and Zambia (virus type SAT 1).

In Swaziland, FMD virus SAT 1 was identified in 8 cattle out of 110 imported from the FMD free area of the Mpumalanga province in South Africa on 23 November 2000. All 110 imported animals were destroyed and buried under veterinary supervision. There was no contamination or infection of the local herds and flocks from the abattoir incident. In South Africa, an investigation was immediately conducted on 29 November 2000 in the feedlot in the Middelburg District of Mpumalanga Province, from where the animals were exported, and clinical lesions were detected in 30 bovines. Samples taken from these animals were confirmed positive for SAT 1 FMD virus. Virus sequencing results showed that the virus topotype closely resembles the serotype of SAT 1 virus that occurs in African buffalo in the southern part of the Kruger National Park. Subsequently, blood samples from two properties tested serologically positive on 15 December, while epithelium samples from 4 out of 225 cattle tested positive for SAT 1 at the Thambokulu dipping tank. An emergency vaccination programme was instituted in the affected area.

In Swaziland, following the intensification of surveillance measures in all dip tanks in the country, FMD was detected in the Macakula dip tank, in the Lubombo region in December 2000. Clinical signs of the disease were observed in 6 cattle of a herd of 30 cattle. Samples sent to the laboratory showed one animal slightly positive for SAT 1 on typing ELISA. Information gathered from the cordon patrols reveals that in recent weeks the cordon fences have been found cut almost every week: it was suspected that animals had been moved across the border. Quarantine and surveillance zones were established.

In South Africa, an outbreak of FMD due to virus O occurred for the first time on a farm in Kwazulu-Natal province, affecting only pigs, in September 2000. Investigations carried out immediately revealed that swill was illegally obtained from a visiting shipping carrier at Durban harbour and fed to the pigs. The farm and all surrounding farms within a 10-km-radius zone were placed under strict quarantine restrictions and a further 20-km-radius surveillance zone was declared around the restriction zone with intensive zoosanitary measures. Infected animals were detected in a further two farms and in a communal area. Stamping-out was carried out. Animals within an area of about 3 km around the outbreaks were also destroyed. In December 2000, the area under suspicion made the rationale to continue with a stamping-out policy questionable and it was, therefore, decided to abandon the stamping-out policy and apply limited vaccination within a radius of 15 km.

In Egypt, where the last disease outbreak occurred in December 1997, eight outbreaks were reported in June 2000.

In Zambia, three outbreaks occurred, one in the northern part and one in the western part of the country, which were linked to cross-border cattle movement.

In Namibia, where the disease has not been reported since 1994, an outbreak of the SAT 1 virus occurred in August 2000 in the Eastern Caprivi district. The area affected lies in a foot and mouth disease-infected zone where annual prophylactic vaccination is practised. Movement control in the interior of the country and vaccination of cattle around the outbreak were installed.

In Malawi, after an absence of one year, the disease reappeared in May 2000 in 12 dip tank areas and on one veterinary station in the Mzimba district in the north-western part of the country.


In Kenya, which declared a zone (Zone I) provisionally free from rinderpest in 1999, early in 2000 active surveillance in wildlife was conducted in the Tana Delta (Zone II). Of a total of 18 buffaloes, 18 warthogs and
5 giraffes, one buffalo and one warthog both under 3 years of age were found with antibodies to rinderpest virus.

The Delegate of Central African Republic declared the western zone of his country free from rinderpest, with effect from 28 February 2000. In this zone, vaccination against rinderpest has been halted and clinical and serological surveillance is being intensified.

Peste des petits ruminants

In 2000, peste des petits ruminants was reported in the following countries: Côte d'Ivoire, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Mali and Senegal.

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia

The countries having reported outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia are the following: in western Africa: Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana and Mali; in central Africa: Chad, Kenya and Tanzania; in eastern Africa: Ethiopia; in southern Africa: Angola, Namibia and Zambia.

In Zambia, where the disease had not been reported since March 1999, an outbreak was recorded in the northern province in February 2000.

Lumpy skin disease

Lumpy skin disease continued to be present in Africa during 2000.

In Mauritius, where the disease had never been reported, an outbreak was recorded in September 2000. The disease was introduced through cattle imported from a country on the African continent. The disease affected some 175 animals, which were slaughtered. Almost the entire national herd was vaccinated.

In Mozambique, nine outbreaks of lumpy skin disease occurred in March and July 2000.


Bluetongue was reported in Algeria, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Tunisia.

In Algeria, 40 outbreaks of bluetongue were recorded from July to September 2000 in the north-eastern part of the country. A vector control system was set up.

In Tunisia, where the disease had never been reported, one outbreak was recorded in the coastal governorates of Monastir, Mahdia and Sfax in January 2000. Approximately 72 new outbreaks of bluetongue were reported between June and October 2000. A vaccination campaign, using a monovalent (type 2) attenuated virus vaccine and targeted at sheep flocks located around the outbreaks, began on 30 August 2000.

Sheep pox and goat pox

The following countries reported the presence of sheep pox and goat pox in 2000: northern Africa: Algeria and Tunisia; western Africa: Niger, Mali and Senegal; eastern Africa: Eritrea, Ethiopia and Sudan.

African horse sickness

In 2000, the disease occurred in Ethiopia, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa and Zimbabwe.

In South Africa, a diagnosis of African horse sickness (AHS) in horses in the AHS surveillance zone of the Western Cape province in February 2000 was invalidated. The Western Cape province is a controlled area of the disease. This area is divided into a free zone, a surveillance zone and a protection zone.

African swine fever

The countries that reported the presence of the disease within their territories are the following: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Madagascar, Malawi and Mozambique.

Classical swine fever

In Mauritius, where classical swine fever had been absent since 1994, one outbreak was reported in August 2000.

Newcastle disease

As in previous years, many African countries were affected by Newcastle disease in 2000.

List B diseases


The following countries reported outbreaks of rabies in 2000: Algeria, Kenya, Sudan and Tanzania.

Contact : Maria Zampaglione

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