Aquatic Animal Health Code

Contents | Index Chapter 8.1. Section 8. Chapter 8.1.

Chapter 8.1.


Infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis


Article 8.1.1.


For the purposes of the Aquatic Code, infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis means infection with the freshwater fungus B. dendrobatidis (Fungi, Chytridiomycota, Rhizophydiales).

Information on methods for diagnostic are provided in the Aquatic Manual.


Article 8.1.2.


Scope

The recommendations in this chapter apply to: all species of Anura (frogs and toads), Caudata (salamanders, newts and sirens) and Gymnophiona (caecilians). The recommendations also apply to any other susceptible species referred to in the Aquatic Manual when traded internationally.


Article 8.1.3.


Importation or transit of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from B. dendrobatidis

  1. Competent Authorities should not require any B. dendrobatidis related conditions, regardless of the B. dendrobatidis status of the exporting country, zone or compartment when authorising the importation or transit of the following aquatic animals and aquatic animal products from the species referred to in Article 8.1.2. intended for any purpose and complying with Article 5.4.1.:

    1. heat sterilised hermetically sealed amphibian products (i.e. a heat treatment at 121°C for at least 3.6 minutes or any time/temperature equivalent);

    2. cooked amphibian products that have been subjected to heat treatment at 100°C for at least one minute (or any time/temperature equivalent which has been demonstrated to inactivate B. dendrobatidis);

    3. pasteurised amphibian products that have been subjected to heat treatment at 90°C for at least ten minutes (or any time/temperature equivalent which has been demonstrated to inactivate B. dendrobatidis);

    4. mechanically dried amphibian products (i.e. a heat treatment of 100°C for at least 30 minutes or any time/temperature equivalent which has been demonstrated to inactivate B. dendrobatidis); and

    5. amphibian skin leather.

  2. When authorising the importation or transit of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products of a species referred to in Article 8.1.2., other than those referred to in point 1 of Article 8.1.3., Competent Authorities should require the conditions prescribed in Articles 8.1.7. to 8.1.12. relevant to the B. dendrobatidis status of the exporting country, zone or compartment.

  3. When considering the importation or transit of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products from an exporting country, zone or compartment not declared free of B. dendrobatidis of a species not covered in Article 8.1.2. but which could reasonably be expected to pose a risk of transmission for B. dendrobatidis, Competent Authorities should conduct a risk analysis in accordance with the recommendations in the Aquatic Code. The exporting country should be informed of the outcome of this assessment.


Article 8.1.4.


B. dendrobatidis free country

A country may make a self-declaration of freedom from B. dendrobatidis if it meets the conditions in points 1, 2, 3 or 4 below.

If a country shares a zone with one or more other countries, it can only make a self-declaration of freedom from B. dendrobatidis if all the areas covered by the zone are declared B. dendrobatidis free (see Article 8.1.5.).

  1. A country where none of the susceptible species referred to in Article 8.1.2. is present may make a self-declaration of freedom from B. dendrobatidis when basic biosecurity conditions have been continuously met in the country for at least the past two years.

OR

  1. A country where the susceptible species referred to in Article 8.1.2. are present but there has been no observed occurrence of the disease for at least the past ten years despite conditions that are conducive to its clinical expression, as described in the corresponding chapter of the Aquatic Manual, may make a self-declaration of freedom from B. dendrobatidis when basic biosecurity conditions have been continuously met in the country for at least the past ten years.

OR

  1. A country where the last known clinical occurrence of the disease was within the past ten years or where the infection status prior to targeted surveillance was unknown (e.g.  because of the absence of conditions conducive to clinical expression as described in the corresponding chapter of the Aquatic Manual) may make a self-declaration of freedom from B. dendrobatidis when:

    1. basic biosecurity conditions have been continuously met for at least the past two years; and

    2. targeted surveillance, as described in Chapter 1.4., has been in place for at least the past two years without detection of B. dendrobatidis.

OR

  1. A country that has previously made a self-declaration of freedom from B. dendrobatidis but in which the disease is subsequently detected may make a self-declaration of freedom from B. dendrobatidis again when the following conditions have been met:

    1. on detection of the disease, the affected area was declared an infected zone and a protection zone was established; and

    2. infected populations have been destroyed or removed from the infected zone by means that minimise the risk of further spread of the disease, and the appropriate disinfection procedures (see Aquatic Manual) have been completed; and

    3. targeted surveillance, as described in Chapter 1.4., has been in place for at least the past two years without detection of B. dendrobatidis; and

    4. previously existing basic biosecurity conditions have been reviewed and modified as necessary and have continuously been in place for at least the past two years.

    In the meantime, part of the non-affected area may be declared a free zone provided that such part meets the conditions in point 3 of Article 8.1.5.


Article 8.1.5.


B. dendrobatidis free zone or free compartment

A zone or compartment within the territory of one or more countries not declared free from B. dendrobatidis may be declared free by the Competent Authority(ies) of the country(ies) concerned if the zone or compartment meets the conditions referred to in points 1, 2, 3 or 4 below.

If a zone or compartment extends over more than one country, it can only be declared a B.  dendrobatidis free zone or compartment if all the Competent Authorities confirm that the conditions have been met.

  1. A zone or compartment where none of the susceptible species referred to in Article 8.1.2. is present may be declared free from B. dendrobatidis when basic biosecurity conditions have been continuously met in the zone or compartment for at least the past two years.

OR

  1. A zone or compartment where the susceptible species referred to in Article 8.1.2. are present but there has never been any observed occurrence of the disease for at least the past ten years despite conditions that are conducive to its clinical expression, as described in the corresponding chapter of the Aquatic Manual, may be declared free from B. dendrobatidis when basic biosecurity conditions have been continuously met in the zone or compartment for at least the past ten years.

OR

  1. A zone or compartment where the last observed occurrence of the disease was within the past ten years or where the infection status prior to targeted surveillance was unknown (e.g. because of the absence of conditions conducive to its clinical expression as described in the corresponding chapter of the Aquatic Manual) may be declared free from B. dendrobatidis when:

    1. basic biosecurity conditions have been continuously met for at least the past two years; and

    2. targeted surveillance, as described in Chapter 1.4., has been in place for at least the past two years without detection of B. dendrobatidis.

OR

  1. A zone previously declared free from B. dendrobatidis but in which the disease is subsequently detected may again be declared free from B. dendrobatidis when the following conditions have been met:

    1. on detection of the disease, the affected area was declared an infected zone and a protection zone was established; and

    2. infected populations have been destroyed or removed from the infected zone by means that minimise the risk of further spread of the disease, and the appropriate disinfection procedures (see Aquatic Manual) have been completed; and

    3. targeted surveillance, as described in Chapter 1.4., has been in place for at least the past two years without detection of B. dendrobatidis; and

    4. previously existing basic biosecurity conditions have been reviewed and modified as necessary and have continuously been in place for at least the past two years.


Article 8.1.6.


Maintenance of free status

A country, zone or compartment that is declared free from B. dendrobatidis following the provisions of points 1 or 2 of Articles 8.1.4. or 8.1.5. (as relevant) may maintain its status as B. dendrobatidis free provided that basic biosecurity conditions are continuously maintained.

A country, zone or compartment that is declared free from B. dendrobatidis following the provisions of point 3 of Articles 8.1.4. or 8.1.5. (as relevant) may discontinue targeted surveillance and maintain its status as B. dendrobatidis free provided that conditions that are conducive to clinical expression of B. dendrobatidis, as described in the corresponding chapter of the Aquatic Manual, exist and basic biosecurity conditions are continuously maintained.

However, for declared free zones or compartments in infected countries and in all cases where conditions are not conducive to clinical expression of B. dendrobatidis, targeted surveillance needs to be continued at a level determined by the Aquatic Animal Health Service on the basis of the likelihood of infection.


Article 8.1.7.


Importation of live aquatic animals from a country, zone or compartment declared free from B. dendrobatidis

When importing live aquatic animals of species referred to in Article 8.1.2. from a country, zone or compartment declared free from B. dendrobatidis, the Competent Authority of the importing country should require an international aquatic animal health certificate issued by the Competent Authority of the exporting country or a certifying official approved by the importing country attesting that, on the basis of the procedures described in Articles 8.1.4. or 8.1.5. (as applicable), the place of production of the aquatic animal is a country, zone or compartment declared free from B. dendrobatidis.

The certificate should be in accordance with the Model Certificate in Chapter 5.11.

This Article does not apply to commodities referred to in point 1 of Article 8.1.3.


Article 8.1.8.


Importation of live aquatic animals for aquaculture from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from B. dendrobatidis

  1. When importing live aquatic animals of species referred to in Article 8.1.2. from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from B. dendrobatidis, the Competent Authority of the importing country should:

    1. require an international aquatic animal health certificate issued by the Competent Authority of the exporting country attesting that the aquatic animals of the species referred to in Article 8.1.2. have been appropriately treated to eradicate infection and have been subsequently tested to confirm absence of the disease according to specifications provided in the relevant chapter in the Aquatic Manual;

    OR

    1. assess the risk and apply risk mitigation measures such as:

      i)
      the direct delivery to and lifelong holding of the consignment in biosecure facilities for continuous isolation from the local environment;

      ii)
      the treatment of all effluent and waste materials in a manner that inactivates B. dendrobatidis.

  2. If the intention of the introduction is the establishment of a new stock, relevant aspects of the Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms of the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) should be considered.

  3. For the purposes of the Aquatic Code, relevant aspects of the ICES Code (full version see: http://www.ices.dk/publications/our-publications/Pages/Miscellaneous.aspx) may be summarised to the following points:

    1. identify stock of interest (cultured or wild) in its current location;

    2. evaluate stock health/disease history;

    3. take and test samples for B. dendrobatidis, pests and general health/disease status;

    4. import and quarantine in a secure facility a founder (F-0) population;

    5. produce F-1 generation from the F-0 stock in quarantine;

    6. culture F-1 stock and at critical times in its development (life cycle) sample and test for B. dendrobatidis and perform general examinations for pests and general health/disease status;

    7. if B. dendrobatidis is not detected, pests are not present, and the general health/disease status of the stock is considered to meet the basic biosecurity conditions of the importing country, zone or compartment, the F-1 stock may be defined as B. dendrobatidis free or specific pathogen free (SPF) for B. dendrobatidis;

    8. release SPF F-1 stock from quarantine for aquaculture or stocking purposes in the country, zone or compartment.

  4. With respect to point 3e), quarantine conditions should be conducive to multiplication of the pathogen and eventually to clinical expression. If quarantine conditions are not suitable for pathogen multiplication and development, the recommended diagnostic approach might not be sensitive enough to detect low infection level.

This Article does not apply to aquatic animals referred to in point 1 of Article 8.1.3.


Article 8.1.9.


Importation of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products for processing for human consumption from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from B. dendrobatidis

When importing, for processing for human consumption, aquatic animals or aquatic animal products of species referred to in Article 8.1.2. from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from B. dendrobatidis, the Competent Authority of the importing country should assess the risk and, if justified, require that:

  1. the consignment is delivered directly to and held in quarantine or containment facilities until processing into one of the products referred to in point 1 of Article 8.1.3., or products described in point 1 of Article 8.1.12., or other products authorised by the Competent Authority; and

  2. all effluent and waste materials from the processing are treated in a manner that ensures inactivation of B. dendrobatidis or is disposed in a manner that prevents contact of waste with susceptible species.

For these commodities Member Countries may wish to consider introducing internal measures to address the risks associated with the commodity being used for any purpose other than for human consumption.


Article 8.1.10.


Importation of live aquatic animals intended for use in animal feed, or for agricultural, laboratory, zoo, pet trade, industrial or pharmaceutical use, from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from B. dendrobatidis

When importing live aquatic animals of species referred to in Article 8.1.2. from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from B. dendrobatidis, the Competent Authority of the importing country should:

  1. require an international aquatic animal health certificate issued by the Competent Authority of the exporting country attesting that the aquatic animals have been appropriately treated to eradicate infection and have been subsequently tested to confirm absence of the disease according to specifications provided in the relevant chapter in the Aquatic Manual;

OR

  1. assess the risk and apply risk mitigation measures such as:

    1. the direct delivery to and lifelong holding of the consignment in biosecure facilities for continuous isolation from the local environment;

    2. the treatment of all effluent and waste materials in a manner that inactivates B. dendrobatidis.

This Article does not apply to commodities referred to in point 1 of Article 8.1.3.


Article 8.1.11.


Importation of aquatic animal products from a country, zone or compartment declared free from B. dendrobatidis

When importing aquatic animal products of species referred to in Article 8.1.2. from a country, zone or compartment declared free from B. dendrobatidis, the Competent Authority of the importing country should require an international aquatic animal health certificate issued by the Competent Authority of the exporting country or a certifying official approved by the importing country attesting that, on the basis of the procedures described in Articles 8.1.4. or 8.1.5. (as applicable), the place of production of the consignment is a country, zone or compartment declared free from B. dendrobatidis.

The certificate should be in accordance with the Model Certificate in Chapter 5.11.

This Article does not apply to commodities referred to in point 1 of Article 8.1.3.


Article 8.1.12.


Importation of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from B. dendrobatidis

  1. Competent Authorities should not require any B. dendrobatidis related conditions, regardless of the B. dendrobatidis status of the exporting country, zone or compartment when authorising the importation or transit of the following commodities which have been prepared and packaged for retail trade and complying with Article 5.4.2.:

    1. amphibian meat (skin off, fresh or frozen).

    Certain assumptions have been made in assessing the safety of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products listed above. Member Countries should refer to these assumptions at Article 5.4.2. and consider whether the assumptions apply to their conditions.

    For these commodities Member Countries may wish to consider introducing internal measures to address the risks associated with the commodity being used for any purpose other than for human consumption.

  2. When importing aquatic animals or aquatic animal products, other than those referred to in point 1 above, of the species referred to in Article 8.1.2. from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from B. dendrobatidis, the Competent Authority of the importing country should assess the risk and apply appropriate risk mitigation measures.

2013 ©OIE - Aquatic Animal Health Code

Contents | Index Chapter 8.1. Chapter 8.1.