OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code
Introduction to the recommendations for controlling antimicrobial resistance
Harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programmes
Monitoring of the quantities and usage patterns of antimicrobials agents used in food producing animals
Responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine
Risk assessment for antimicrobial resistance arising from the use of antimicrobials in animals
Monitoring of the quantities and usage patterns of antimicrobial agents used in aquatic animals
Developpment and harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programmes for aquatic animals
Risk analysis for antimicrobial resistance arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in aquatic animals
OIE Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for Terrestrial Animals
Laboratory methodologies for bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Antimicrobial resistance is a global human and animal health concern which is influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents in both human and veterinary medicine, as well as in the plant sector. The human, animal and plant health sectors therefore have a shared responsibility to prevent or minimise antimicrobial resistance selection pressures on both human and non-human pathogens.
The OIE has worked actively for more than ten years on the issue of veterinary products (including antimicrobial agents) and developed a coherent strategy for its activities in this area. Sine antimicrobial resistance is an animal and human health issue, the OIE works closely with its Member Countries, WHO, FAO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.
Following the FAO/OIE/WHO workshops on non-human antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance held in 2003 (on scientific assessment) and in 2004 (on management options), the OIE developed a list of antimicrobial agents of veterinary importance, in parallel with the WHO list for human medicine.
In 2016, the OIE’s 84th General Assembly unanimously adopted Resolution no. 36 , which mandates that OIE compile AMR activities into a strategy. On November 2016 the OIE Strategy on Antimicrobial Resistance and the Prudent Use of Antimicrobials was published. Aligned with the WHO Global Action Plan the strategy recognizes the importance of a “One Health” approach involving human and animal health, agricultural and environmental needs. It outlines the goals and tactics the OIE has in place to support Member Countries in their fight against AMR, and to encourage the national ownership and implementation of international Standards.
The OIE promotes the responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial agents in terrestrial animals, so as to preserve their therapeutic efficacy and prolong their use in both animals and humans. It has developed intergovernmental standards on antimicrobial resistance and on the monitoring of the quantities of antimicrobial agents used.
The OIE has also developed standards and guidelines to provide methodologies for OIE Member Countries to appropriately address the risk of the emergence or spread of resistant bacteria that result from the use of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals.
Its texts cover both terrestrial animals and aquatics animals and are found in the following publications:
These standards are regularly updated to take account of the latest scientific findings (latest update in May 2015).
As part of its AMR Strategy, the OIE is developing a database to establish a global surveillance on antimicrobial use in animals. The database is designed to:
In the last trimester of 2015, the OIE launched an annual collection of data on the use of antimicrobial agents in animals in OIE Member Countries. The template and the guidance documents used to complete this template were developed by the OIE Ad hoc Group on Antimicrobial Resistance, endorsed by the Scientific Commission for Animal Diseases and tested by Member Countries.
More than 70% countries provided information to the occasion of this first phase of the annual questionnaire survey on use of antimicrobial agents in animals. These results are presented in the report and synthesis article below.
83rd General Session, May 2015
84th General Session, May 2016
Resolution No. 36: Combating Antimicrobial Resistance through a One Health Approach: Actions and OIE Strategy
"International Solidarity in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance"
(OIE Headquarters, Paris, 13-15 March 2013)