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Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)


OIE Activities

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  • OIE Standards

    OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

    Chapter 6.7.
    Introduction to the recommendations for controlling antimicrobial resistance

    Chapter 6.8.
    Harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programmes

    Chapter 6.9.
    Monitoring of the quantities and usage patterns of antimicrobials agents used in food producing animals

    Chapter 6.10.
    Responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine

    Chapter 6.11.
    Risk assessment for antimicrobial resistance arising from the use of antimicrobials in animals

    OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code

    Chapter 6.1.
    Introduction to the recommendations for controlling antimicrobial resistance

    Chapter 6.2.
    Principles for responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial agents in aquatic animals

    Chapter 6.3.
    Monitoring of the quantities and usage patterns of antimicrobial agents used in aquatic animals

    Chapter 6.4.
    Developpment and harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programmes for aquatic animals

    Chapter 6.5.
    Risk analysis for antimicrobial resistance arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in aquatic animals

    OIE Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for Terrestrial Animals

    Chapter 3.1.
    Laboratory methodologies for bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Antimicrobial resistance is a global human and animal health concern which is influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents in both human and veterinary medicine, as well as in the plant sector. The human, animal and plant health sectors therefore have a shared responsibility to prevent or minimise antimicrobial resistance selection pressures on both human and non-human pathogens.

The OIE has worked actively for more than ten years on the issue of veterinary products (including antimicrobial agents) and developed a coherent strategy for its activities in this area. Sine antimicrobial resistance is an animal and human health issue, the OIE works closely with its Member Countries, WHO, FAO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

Following the FAO/OIE/WHO workshops on non-human antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance held in 2003 (on scientific assessment) and in 2004 (on management options), the OIE developed a list of antimicrobial agents of veterinary importance, in parallel with the WHO list for human medicine.

OIE Strategy

In 2016, the OIE’s 84th General Assembly unanimously adopted Resolution no. 36 , which mandates that OIE compile AMR activities into a strategy. On November 2016 the OIE Strategy on Antimicrobial Resistance and the Prudent Use of Antimicrobials  was published. Aligned with the WHO Global Action Plan the strategy recognizes the importance of a “One Health” approach involving human and animal health, agricultural and environmental needs. It outlines the goals and tactics the OIE has in place to support Member Countries in their fight against AMR, and to encourage the national ownership and implementation of international Standards.

OIE intergovernmental standards

The OIE promotes the responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial agents in terrestrial animals, so as to preserve their therapeutic efficacy and prolong their use in both animals and humans. It has developed intergovernmental standards on antimicrobial resistance and on the monitoring of the quantities of antimicrobial agents used.

The OIE has also developed standards and guidelines to provide methodologies for OIE Member Countries to appropriately address the risk of the emergence or spread of resistant bacteria that result from the use of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals.

Its texts cover both terrestrial animals and aquatics animals and are found in the following publications:

Terrestrial Animal Health Code (chapters 6.7., 6.8., 6.9., 6.10. and 6.11.

Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. (Chapter 3.1.)

Aquatic Animals Health Code (Chapters 6.1., 6.2., 6.3. , 6.4. and 6.5.)

These standards are regularly updated to take account of the latest scientific findings (latest update in May 2015).

Global database on antimicrobial agents intended for use in animals

In the framework of the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), the OIE, supported by FAO and WHO within the tripartite collaboration, has taken the lead to build a global database on antimicrobial agents intended for use in animals. The OIE’s partners acknowledge this accomplishment as a major milestone in the global effort to contain antimicrobial resistance. The database is designed to:

• Monitor the type and use of antimicrobial products

• Support Member Countries in implementing Chapter 6.9. of the Terrestrial Code and Chapter 6.3. of the Aquatic Code

• Measure trends over time

• Trace circulation and use patterns globally

• Evaluate the quality and authenticity of antimicrobial products in use

The OIE Database on antimicrobial agents intended for use in animals in OIE Member Countries was launched in October 2015.

The template for data submission and relevant guidance documents were developed by the OIE ad hoc Group on Antimicrobial Resistance, endorsed by the Scientific Commission for Animal Diseases and tested by Member Countries. Each successive year of data collection provides valuable feedback from Member Countries towards improvement of the template through this same process.

The template is designed to allow all countries to complete it, irrespective of whether national data collection system exists.

OIE Annual Report on Antimicrobial Agents Intended for Use in Animals

The OIE publishes an annual report on the use of antimicrobial agents intended for use in animals following the annual round of data collection sent to its Member Countries, that takes place between September/October to May.

The latest report, published in February 2019, provides specific information on the global use of antimicrobial agents adjusted for animal biomass for the year 2015, and presents the overall findings of the third annual data collection on the use of antimicrobial agents in animals, providing global and regional analysis for the period 2015 to 2017.

The Third OIE Annual Report on Antimicrobial Agents Intended for Use in Animals

The third round of data collection took place between October 2017 and May 2018. Contributions to the OIE Database have grown from reporting data from 130 Member Countries for its first report in 2016 to 155 Countries for its third report: 153 OIE Member Countries (85% of 181 Member Countries) and 2 non-OIE Member Countries.

The third round includes evidence on the barriers that 31 countries experienced in reporting quantitative data on antimicrobial agents intended for use in animals.

Additionally, this report provides calculations of animal biomass for food-producing species from 91 countries reporting quantitative data for the year 2015, and allowed for an analysis of antimicrobial quantities reported adjusted by a denominator.

Previous OIE Reports

OIE Template, Guidance and Calculations

The OIE considered the experience and feedback from Member Countries and annually update the template and guidance document based on requests for clarification from responding Members. The current version of these documents, provided to OIE-Member and non-Member Countries in the fourth round of data collection, are available below.

OIE template

Guidance for completing
the OIE template

Annex to assist
in calculations

 

Network of OIE Experts on Antimicrobial Resistance

The OIE's work is this area is supported by a Reference Laboratory and several Collaborating Centres, as well as by an Ad hoc Group of international experts, including experts from WHO and FAO.

Resolution adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates

83rd General Session, May 2015

  • Resolution No. 26: Combating antimicrobial resistance and promoting the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in animals

84th General Session, May 2016

  • Resolution No. 36: Combating Antimicrobial Resistance through a One Health Approach: Actions and OIE Strategy

85th General Session, May 2017

  • Resolution No. 38: Global action to alleviate the threat of antimicrobial resistance: progress and opportunities for future activities under the ‘One health’ initiative

86th General Session, May 2018

OIE Global Conference

THE RESPONSIBLE AND PRUDENT USE OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FOR ANIMALS

"International Solidarity in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance"
(OIE Headquarters, Paris, 13-15 March 2013)

2nd OIE Global Conference

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND PRUDENT USE OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

Putting Standards into Practice
Marrakesh (Morocco), 29-31 October 2018