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Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)

OIE Activities

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  • OIE Standards

    OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code

    Chapter 6.7.
    Introduction to the recommendations for controlling antimicrobial resistance

    Chapter 6.8.
    Harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programmes

    Chapter 6.9.
    Monitoring of the quantities and usage patterns of antimicrobials agents used in food producing animals

    Chapter 6.10.
    Responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine

    Chapter 6.11.
    Risk assessment for antimicrobial resistance arising from the use of antimicrobials in animals

    OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code

    Chapter 6.1.
    Introduction to the recommendations for controlling antimicrobial resistance

    Chapter 6.2.
    Principles for responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial agents in aquatic animals

    Chapter 6.3.
    Monitoring of the quantities and usage patterns of antimicrobial agents used in aquatic animals

    Chapter 6.4.
    Developpment and harmonisation of national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programmes for aquatic animals

    Chapter 6.5.
    Risk analysis for antimicrobial resistance arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in aquatic animals


    OIE Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for Terrestrial Animals

    Chapter 3.1.
    Laboratory methodologies for bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Antimicrobial resistance is a global human and animal health concern which is influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents in both human and veterinary medicine, as well as in the plant sector. The human, animal and plant health sectors therefore have a shared responsibility to prevent or minimise antimicrobial resistance selection pressures on both human and non-human pathogens.

The OIE has worked actively for more than ten years on the issue of veterinary products (including antimicrobial agents) and developed a coherent strategy for its activities in this area. Sine antimicrobial resistance is an animal and human health issue, the OIE works closely with its Member Countries, WHO, FAO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

Following the FAO/OIE/WHO workshops on non-human antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance held in 2003 (on scientific assessment) and in 2004 (on management options), the OIE developed a list of antimicrobial agents of veterinary importance, in parallel with the WHO list for human medicine.

OIE Strategy

In 2016, the OIE’s 84th General Assembly unanimously adopted Resolution no. 36 , which mandates that OIE compile AMR activities into a strategy. On November 2016 the OIE Strategy on Antimicrobial Resistance and the Prudent Use of Antimicrobials  was published. Aligned with the WHO Global Action Plan the strategy recognizes the importance of a “One Health” approach involving human and animal health, agricultural and environmental needs. It outlines the goals and tactics the OIE has in place to support Member Countries in their fight against AMR, and to encourage the national ownership and implementation of international Standards.

OIE intergovernmental standards

The OIE promotes the responsible and prudent use of antimicrobial agents in terrestrial animals, so as to preserve their therapeutic efficacy and prolong their use in both animals and humans. It has developed intergovernmental standards on antimicrobial resistance and on the monitoring of the quantities of antimicrobial agents used.

The OIE has also developed standards and guidelines to provide methodologies for OIE Member Countries to appropriately address the risk of the emergence or spread of resistant bacteria that result from the use of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals.

Its texts cover both terrestrial animals and aquatics animals and are found in the following publications:

These standards are regularly updated to take account of the latest scientific findings (latest update in May 2015).

Global database on antimicrobial agents intended for use in animals

In the framework of the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), the OIE, supported by FAO and WHO within the tripartite collaboration, has taken the lead to build a global database on antimicrobial agents intended for use in animals. The OIE’s partners acknowledge this accomplishment as a major milestone in the global effort to contain antimicrobial resistance. The database is designed to::

  • Monitor the type and use of antimicrobial products
  • Support Member Countries in implementing Chapter 6.9. of the Terrestrial Code and Chapter 6.3. of the Aquatic Code
  • Measure trends over time
  • Trace circulation and use patterns globally
  • Evaluate the quality and authenticity of antimicrobial products in use

The template for data submission and relevant guidance documents were developed by the OIE ad hoc Group on Antimicrobial Resistance, endorsed by the Scientific Commission for Animal Diseases and tested by Member Countries. Each successive year of data collection provides valuable feedback from Member Countries towards improvement of the template through this same process.

The template is designed to allow all countries to complete it, regardless of the stage of development of their national data collection system.

First phase of data collection

The first annual data collection on the use of antimicrobial agents in animals in OIE Member Countries was launched in the last trimester of 2015 and concluded in May 2016.

72% of OIE Member Countries provided information towards this first phase of the annual questionnaire survey on use of antimicrobial agents in animals in this time. The results are presented in the first Annual Report, published December 2016, and synthesis article below.


First Annual Report

(published 2016)

Synthesis article


Second phase of data collection

The second phase of data collection took place between October 2016 and May 2017, resulting in a global increase in participation with 79% of OIE Member Countries responding, as well as 3 non-OIE Member Countries. New in this report, the first global calculations of animal biomass allowed for an additional analysis of antimicrobial quantities reported adjusted by a denominator, focusing on quantitative data from 2014.  The data are presented in the second Annual Report, published December 2017, and available below.



Second Annual Report

(published 2017)


Third phase of data collection

The third phase of data collection began in October 2017.

The OIE considered the experience and feedback from Member Countries and annually update the template and guidance document based on requests for clarification from responding Members. The current version of these documents, as provided to OIE-Member and non-Member Countries in the third phase of data collection, are available below.

OIE template

Guidance for completing
the OIE template

Annex to assist
in calculations


Network of OIE Experts on Antimicrobial Resistance

The OIE's work is this area is supported by a Reference Laboratory and several Collaborating Centres, as well as by an Ad hoc Group of international experts, including experts from WHO and FAO.

Resolution adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates

83rd General Session, May 2015

  • Resolution No. 26: Combating antimicrobial resistance and promoting the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in animals

84th General Session, May 2016

  • Resolution No. 36: Combating Antimicrobial Resistance through a One Health Approach: Actions and OIE Strategy

85th General Session, May 2017

  • Resolution No. 38: Global action to alleviate the threat of antimicrobial resistance: progress and opportunities for future activities under the ‘One health’ initiative

OIE Global Conference


"International Solidarity in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance"
(OIE Headquarters, Paris, 13-15 March 2013)