The OIE World Fund has worldwide experience in the management of vaccine banks and the delivery of vaccines for Avian Influenza (AI), Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), Rabies (vaccination of dogs), and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), supported financially to date by Australia (FMD and Rabies), Canada (AI and Rabies), China (FMD), the European Union (AI, FMD and Rabies), France (Rabies and FMD), Germany (Rabies), Korea (FMD), New Zealand (FMD) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (PPR). OIE vaccine banks are established through international calls for tender and selection procedures involving independent committees composed of international renowned experts and donor representatives.
When high-quality vaccines, complying with international standards, are provided free of charge to developing countries at the airport of destination (the costs of vaccines and transportation are covered by the Vaccine Banks), the beneficiary country can concentrate its efforts and limited resources on implementing the vaccination campaigns (in-kind contribution and mobilisation of scarce human, financial and technical resources, such as staff for vaccination, cold chain transport and storage if required, and vaccination consumables), or on contracting public/private partnerships with implementing partners such as NGOs, for instance. The use of the vaccine bank mechanism creates incentives and leverage effects towards the progressive ownership of and effective implementation of animal disease control programmes.
OIE regional antigen/vaccine banks may include ready-to-use, formulated vaccines which can be delivered in a timely manner if urgent requests arise. Production can also be organised on demand with possible replenishment mechanisms in order to meet the needs of a variety of different orders, whether small or large. This mechanism enables the rapid supply of emergency stocks of vaccines to infected countries, as well as planned deliveries at a lower cost, in order to vaccinate targeted animal populations at risk and to progressively achieve eradication wherever possible.
Regional vaccine banks enable economies of scale, synergies and leveraging of results while contributing to harmonisation and coordination of global and regional control programmes. In addition, they allow for multi-party vaccination campaigns, public–private partnerships and the possible involvement of non-governmental organisations.
Vaccine banks ensure the procurement of high quality vaccines manufactured in line with OIE intergovernmental standards and delivered in a timely manner.
Vaccine Bank contracts can also include more sophisticated financial and replenishment mechanisms with possible clauses for direct purchase by beneficiary countries or by international organisations and partners.
Considering the efficiency of the OIE mechanism for procurement of vaccines, WHO decided in 2014 to place all of its orders for rabies vaccines for dogs through the OIE Rabies Vaccine Bank. This has enabled the delivery by WHO of 8 million doses of rabies vaccines, as of September 2016.
In 2006, the OIE set up a Regional Vaccine Bank for Avian Influenza vaccines in Africa funded under the European Union Pan African Programme for the Control of Epizootics (PACE) and in 2007 also established a global vaccine bank for Avian Influenza vaccines funded by Canada (Canadian International Development Agency at the time).
Through these two mechanisms, a total of 62,017 million H5N2 doses were delivered to the following countries: Mauritania, Senegal, Egypt, Mauritius, Ghana, Togo and Vietnam. Egypt and Vietnam accounted for the most significant levels of distribution, with 28 million and 26.7 million doses respectively (including in kind donations of vaccines from the United Kingdom and Canada). The Avian Influenza vaccine bank is currently closed (and dormant).
The European Union funded Regional Cooperation Programme on Highly Pathogenic Emerging and Re-emerging animal diseases (HPED), which commenced in 2010, has seen the expansion of the OIE’s Vaccine Bank concept to Asia, in order to rapidly provide eligible countries with an emergency stock of vaccines to vaccinate animal populations at risk under the framework of agreed vaccination strategies, targeting Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) and rabies (vaccination of dogs).
The antigens reserved for FMD are being used for strategic vaccination in buffer zones (ring vaccination)/ hot spots around disease-free areas in order to stop the spread of the disease, as well as to reduce the associated economic costs caused by the loss of FMD free status. Additional financial support has been received from Australia, China, New Zealand and Korea for the procurement of FMD vaccines to eligible countries. This demonstrates the multi-donor approach supporting the concept of regional vaccine banks.
With reference to rabies, the OIE Regional Rabies Vaccine Bank for Asia supports the delivery of injectable rabies vaccines for dogs to eligible countries. The elimination of rabies is both a public health and economic priority and, hence, preventing the spread of this zoonotic disease is essential in order to reduce the socio-economic cost of the post contamination treatment of humans. Dog vaccination against rabies is the only way to break the cycle of transmission among dogs and between dogs and humans. The OIE Regional Rabies Vaccine Bank was then opened to eligible countries in Africa, with additional financial support from France and Germany.
In 2013, a PPR Vaccine Bank for Africa was established for the provision of high quality PPR vaccines to eligible African countries. Funding support for the PPR Vaccine Bank for Africa was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. This vaccine bank not only ensures the timely supply of high quality vaccines complying with international standards, but also facilitates the harmonisation of PPR control methods in Africa. The World Bank has also provided support to the OIE PPR Vaccine Bank for Africa through the Regional Sahel Pastoralism Support Project (PRAPS) which targets 6 countries in Western and Central Africa.
The OIE’s provision of vaccines for an array of diseases is an important tool to counter the spread of transboundary animal diseases globally.
************ Number of doses delivered or ordered as of September 2016 ************
• Rabies vaccines: over 15 million doses to eligible countries in Africa and Asia
• FMD vaccines: 4.6 million doses to eligible countries in Asia
• PPR vaccines: over 32 million doses to eligible countries in Africa *
* Includes the direct purchase of 4 million doses of PPR vaccine by Togo with support from the World Bank and the order of 18.6 million doses of PPR vaccines by Chad, Mauritania and Niger with support from the World Bank PRAPS project.