Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
Japan
Information received on 16/12/2014 from Dr Toshiro Kawashima, CVO, Deputy Director-General, Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan
Summary
Report type Follow-up report No. 4
Date of start of the event 03/11/2014
Date of confirmation of the event 13/11/2014
Report date 16/12/2014
Date submitted to OIE 16/12/2014
Date event resolved 17/02/2015
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 16/04/2014
Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Serotype H5N8
Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to the whole country
Related reports Immediate notification (13/11/2014)
Follow-up report No. 1 (21/11/2014)
Follow-up report No. 2 (25/11/2014)
Follow-up report No. 3 (04/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 4 (16/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 5 (19/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 6 (26/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 7 (29/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 8 (30/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 9 (09/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 10 (16/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 11 (20/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 12 (30/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 13 (05/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 14 (13/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 15 (20/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 16 (24/04/2015)
New outbreaks (4)
Outbreak 1 Izumi-shi, KAGOSHIMA
Date of start of the outbreak 23/11/2014
Outbreak status Resolved (29/11/2014)
Epidemiological unit Not applicable
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
White-naped crane:Grus vipio(Gruidae) 1 1 0 0
Affected population A weakened Grus vipio (white-naped crane) was found and tested.
Outbreak 2 Izumi-shi, KAGOSHIMA
Date of start of the outbreak 01/12/2014
Outbreak status Resolved (06/12/2014)
Epidemiological unit Not applicable
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Gruidae (unidentified):Gruidae (incognita)(Gruidae) 0 0
Affected population Water collected from roost of cranes (not from animals).
Outbreak 3 Izumi-shi, KAGOSHIMA
Date of start of the outbreak 07/12/2014
Outbreak status Resolved (10/12/2014)
Epidemiological unit Not applicable
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Hooded crane:Grus monacha(Gruidae) 1 1 0 0
Affected population A dead Grus monacha (hooded crane) was found and tested.
Outbreak 4 ( Miyazaki-1) Nobeoka-shi, Kitagawa-machi, MIYAZAKI
Date of start of the outbreak 14/12/2014
Outbreak status Resolved (16/12/2014)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Birds 4031 31 31 4000 0
Affected population Poultry (broiler breeder)
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 4
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
White-naped crane:Grus vipio(Gruidae) 1 1 0 0
Gruidae (unidentified):Gruidae (incognita)(Gruidae) ** 0 0
Hooded crane:Grus monacha(Gruidae) 1 1 0 0
Birds 4031 31 31 4000 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
White-naped crane:Grus vipio(Gruidae) ** ** 100.00% **
Gruidae (unidentified):Gruidae (incognita)(Gruidae) ** ** ** **
Hooded crane:Grus monacha(Gruidae) ** ** 100.00% **
Birds 0.77% 0.77% 100.00% 100.00%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
**Not calculated because of missing information
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Unknown or inconclusive
Epidemiological comments Outbreaks in wild birds Case 1: A weakened Grus vipio (white-naped crane) was collected on 23 November 2014 and tested at Kagoshima University. It was confirmed on 29 November 2014 that the bird was infected with H5N8 influenza A virus. The result of gene sequencing indicated that a HA0 cleavage site of the amino acid sequence was consistent with that of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Case 2: Water collected from roost* of cranes on 1 December 2014 was tested against avian influenza virus. It was confirmed on 6 December 2014 that H5N8 influenza A virus was detected in a sample. The result of gene sequencing indicated that a HA0 cleavage site of the amino acid sequence was consistent with that of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. *artificial wet paddy in a nationally-designated bird sanctuary in Izumi-shi Case 3: A dead Grus monacha (hooded crane) was collected on 7 December 2014 and tested against avian influenza virus. It was confirmed on 10 December 2014 that the bird was infected with H5N8 influenza A virus. The result of gene sequencing indicated that a HA0 cleavage site of the amino acid sequence was consistent with that of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Outbreak in domestic birds On 15 December 2014, the local veterinary service in Miyazaki Prefecture received a notification from a broiler breeder farm on an increase in the number of dead birds (one bird on 13 December, 12 birds on 14 December and 19 birds on 15 December). The samples were sent to the laboratory of local veterinary service (Miyazaki Livestock Hygiene Centre) and the samples from dead birds were confirmed to be influenza A virus positive by antigen-capture kits. On the same day, the centre started RT-PCR test and confirmed that the subtype was H5 on 16 December 2014 (midnight of 15 December 2014). Stamping-out policy was applied to the affected farm. Destruction of all the susceptible birds in the affected farm (approx. 4,000 birds) was completed in the morning of 16 December 2014. Movement restrictions are imposed on the farms within the radius of 3km of the affected farm. Shipment restrictions are imposed on the farms within the radius of 3-10km of the affected farm. The N-type has not yet been identified.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Movement control inside the country
  • Screening
  • Disinfection / Disinfestation
  • Quarantine
  • Stamping out
  • Control of wildlife reservoirs
  • Vaccination prohibited
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
Miyazaki Livestock Hygiene Centre (Local laboratory) Birds reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 16/12/2014 Positive
Kagoshima University (Private Laboratory) Gruidae (unidentified) gene sequencing 06/12/2014 Positive
Kagoshima University (Private Laboratory) Gruidae (unidentified) reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 05/12/2014 Positive
Kagoshima University (Private Laboratory) Gruidae (unidentified) virus isolation 04/12/2014 Positive
Kagoshima University (Private Laboratory) Hooded crane gene sequencing 10/12/2014 Positive
Kagoshima University (Private Laboratory) Hooded crane reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 09/12/2014 Positive
Kagoshima University (Private Laboratory) Hooded crane virus isolation 09/12/2014 Positive
Kagoshima University (Private Laboratory) White-naped crane gene sequencing 29/11/2014 Positive
Kagoshima University (Private Laboratory) White-naped crane reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 28/11/2014 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations