Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
United States of America
Information received on 16/12/2014 from Dr John Clifford, Official Delegate, Chief Trade Advisor, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, United States of America
Report type Immediate notification
Date of start of the event 10/12/2014
Date of confirmation of the event 15/12/2014
Report date 16/12/2014
Date submitted to OIE 16/12/2014
Date event resolved 13/11/2015
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 2004
Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Serotype H5N2
Nature of diagnosis Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
Related reports Immediate notification (16/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 1 (07/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 2 (13/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 3 (22/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 4 (03/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 5 (17/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 6 (24/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 7 (06/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 8 (12/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 9 (20/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 10 (31/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 11 (08/04/2015)
Follow-up report No. 12 (15/04/2015)
Follow-up report No. 13 (24/04/2015)
Follow-up report No. 14 (01/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 15 (08/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 16 (20/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 17 (29/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 18 (09/06/2015)
Follow-up report No. 19 (17/06/2015)
Follow-up report No. 20 (26/06/2015)
Follow-up report No. 21 (02/07/2015)
Follow-up report No. 22 (22/07/2015)
Follow-up report No. 23 (31/07/2015)
Follow-up report No. 24 (10/08/2015)
Follow-up report No. 25 (17/08/2015)
Follow-up report No. 26 (24/08/2015)
Follow-up report No. 27 (01/09/2015)
Follow-up report No. 28 (08/09/2015)
Follow-up report No. 29 (14/09/2015)
Follow-up report No. 30 (21/09/2015)
Follow-up report No. 31 (07/10/2015)
Follow-up report No. 32 (13/10/2015)
Follow-up report No. 33 (13/11/2015)
Follow-up report No. 34 (18/11/2015)
New outbreaks (1)
Outbreak 1 ( 1) Whatcom County, Whatcom , Washington
Date of start of the outbreak 15/12/2014
Outbreak status Resolved (15/03/2015)
Epidemiological unit Not applicable
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Northern Pintail:Anas acuta(Anatidae)
Affected population Wild pintail ducks
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Northern Pintail:Anas acuta(Anatidae) **
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Northern Pintail:Anas acuta(Anatidae) ** ** ** **
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
**Not calculated because of missing information
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Contact with wild species
Epidemiological comments As a precaution and in response to the recent HPAI outbreak in Canada, surveillance of poultry premises and of wild bird mortality events was enhanced by the USDA, and State personnel along the United States - Canadian Border. Through this surveillance, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 was identified in wild birds. Two serotypes were identified on enhanced surveillance, both with amino acid sequence at the HA cleavage site consistent with HPAI, H5N8 and H5N2. H5N8 was identified in a captive wild gyrfalcon that was fed hunter killed wild birds from Whatcom County, Washington and H5N2 was identified in a wild pintail duck also from Whatcom County, Washington. Preliminary analysis suggests this H5N2 is similar to the HPAI identified in the current Canadian outbreak. Based upon sequence attempt from a virus isolate, an avian influenza subtype H5 of Eurasian lineage (partial HA 98% similarity to A/bean goose/Korea/H40/2014) and N2 of US wild bird lineage (partial NA 98% similarity to A/American green-winged teal/California/HKWF609/2007); the amino acid sequence at the hemagglutinin cleavage site is consistent with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Preliminary data suggests that these virus strains (H5N2 and H5N8) may be related with the H5N8 strain potentially representing the progenitor; however further analysis is needed. Neither of these viruses has been found in any poultry in the United States. These H5N8 and H5N2 detections involve only wild birds. Further investigation and characterization of the HPAI viruses is ongoing.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Vaccination prohibited
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Northern Pintail gene sequencing Pending
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Northern Pintail haemagglutination (HA) test 15/12/2014 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Northern Pintail real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) 15/12/2014 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Northern Pintail virus isolation 15/12/2014 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations