Glanders,
Germany
Information received on 30/01/2015 from Dr. Karin Schwabenbauer, Ministerial Dirigentin and Chief Veterinary Officer , Directorate of Animal Health, Animal Welfare, Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (BMEL) , Bonn, Germany
Summary
Report type Immediate notification
Date of start of the event 01/12/2014
Date of confirmation of the event 27/01/2015
Report date 30/01/2015
Date submitted to OIE 30/01/2015
Date event resolved 27/01/2015
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 1955
Manifestation of disease Sub-clinical infection
Causal agent Burkholderia mallei
Nature of diagnosis Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
Related reports Immediate notification (30/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 1 (09/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 2 (12/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 3 (29/06/2015)
New outbreaks (1)
Outbreak 1 (15-408-00002) Bippen, Osnabrück, Niedersachsen
Date of start of the outbreak 01/12/2014
Outbreak status Resolved (27/01/2015)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 31 1 0 1 0
Affected population The affected horse was born in May 2008 and kept in the holding concerned since November 2014. On 26 November 2014 a blood sample has been taken for export purposes to a Third country with respect to glanders. The horse showed no clinical signs and has been kept separately from other horses during the pre-export quarantine. The complement fixation test showed a positive result (Land Laboratory); the Friedrich-Loeffler Institute (FLI) (National Reference Laboratory for Glanders) confirmed the result and revealed also a positive result with the immunoblot method. A second blood sample was taken and the results of this investigation confirmed the first results. As there was no epidemiological evidence for the infection, the affected horse has been culled for diagnostic purposes on 13 December 2014. The bacteriological investigations of the organs showed negative results for Burkholderia mallei. The investigation of skin samples with immunohistological methods showed doubtful results. Further investigation of scabs of skin samples (fixed in formalin) with PCR showed positive results. The infection with Burkholderia mallei was confirmed on 27 January 2015.
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 31 1 0 1 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Equidae 3.23% 0.00% 0.00% 3.23%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Unknown or inconclusive
Epidemiological comments The affected holding has been put immediately under restriction following the first serological positive test (1 December 2014). All other equines of the affected holding have been investigated three times every two weeks with negative results. The affected equine has been culled for diagnostic purposes. Cleansing and disinfection of the affected holding has been carried out and finished on 27 January 2015. The infection with B. mallei has been resolved from 27 January 2015. Epidemiological investigations have started with the help of Friedrich-Loeffler Institute . It is known that the affected animal had never been moved outside of Germany. There might have been indirect contacts to South America. The source of infection is still unknown.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Screening
  • Disinfection / Disinfestation
  • Modified stamping out
  • Vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists)
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
Friedrich-Loeffler-Insitut (National laboratory) Equidae western blot 10/12/2014 Positive
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (National laboratory) Equidae complement fixation test (CFT) 10/12/2014 Positive
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (National laboratory) Equidae real-time PCR 27/01/2015 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations