Rift Valley fever,
Rwanda
Information received on 10/08/2018 from Dr Théogène Rutagwenda, Director, Rwanda Animal Resources Development Authority (RARDA), Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources , Kigali, Rwanda
Summary
Report type Immediate notification
Date of start of the event 18/05/2018
Date of confirmation of the event 06/06/2018
Report date 10/08/2018
Date submitted to OIE 10/08/2018
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 11/2017
Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
Causal agent Rift Valley fever virus
Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced), Necropsy
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
Related reports Immediate notification (10/08/2018)
Follow-up report No. 1 (04/09/2018)
New outbreaks (8)
Outbreak 1 Karenge, Kigarama, Camigurwa, Mushikiri, Kirehe
Date of start of the outbreak 18/05/2018
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 3 3 0 0 0
Affected population Dairy cows which have aborted.
Outbreak 2 Bwiza, Nyabikokora , Kirehe, Kirehe
Date of start of the outbreak 18/05/2018
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 3 3 0 0 0
Affected population Dairy cows which have aborted.
Outbreak 3 Gahama, Munini, Kamasaro, Rwesero , Kirehe, Kirehe
Date of start of the outbreak 18/05/2018
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 6 6 0 0 0
Affected population Dairy cows which have aborted.
Outbreak 4 Umukiza, Kabeza, Kinunga, Remera , Ngoma
Date of start of the outbreak 18/05/2018
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 6 1 0 0 0
Affected population Dairy cows (5) and a calf; one animal is in the process of abortion.
Outbreak 5 Nyakabingo, Nyamagana , Remera, Ngoma
Date of start of the outbreak 18/05/2018
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 3 1 1 0 0
Affected population Two dairy cows (one died) and a newborn calf.
Outbreak 6 Rurama, Gatare, Buliba, Rukira, Ngoma
Date of start of the outbreak 18/05/2018
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 3 3 0 0 0
Affected population Dairy cows which have aborted.
Outbreak 7 Agatare, Nyaruvumu , Rukira, Ngoma
Date of start of the outbreak 18/05/2018
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 2 2 0 0 0
Affected population Sick dairy cows.
Outbreak 8 Karama, Sangano, Rwasabwasi, Musyi, Rurenge, Ngoma
Date of start of the outbreak 18/05/2018
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 7 7 1 0 0
Affected population Dairy cows which have aborted; one animal died.
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 8
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 33 26 2 0 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Cattle 78.79% 6.06% 7.69% 6.06%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Vectors
Epidemiological comments Key interventions in order to contain the spread of the Rift Valley disease: In order to minimize the contact between sick and healthy animals, quarantine measures such as banning the movement of all livestock and livestock products in Ngoma, Kirehe and Kayonza Districts were imposed. In order to minimize the contact between sick and healthy animals, quarantine measures such as banning the movement of all livestock and livestock products in Ngoma, Kirehe and Kayonza Districts were imposed. Targeted vaccination of healthy livestock in the three Districts is underway starting from affected zones and moving to cover the risk area. Vaccination cost is fully covered by the Government of Rwanda. A strong awareness campaign is underway through several Radio (RBA, IZUBA, ISANGO STAR, KT Radio, Huguka, New times, Radio Salus, Communities Radio Nyagatare, Huye..) announcements educating the public on how to avoid further spread of the disease especially people to avoid mosquitoes, sleep under mosquito nets and clear bushes that are hiding and breeding areas for mosquitoes. Advising people to report signs of suspected cases of livestock to veterinarians. Public awareness for people to avoid meat from livestock that show signs of the disease. • MINAGRI has acquired an acaricide (drug used to control ticks and mosquitoes) that has proved to be very effective and has deployed staff to help farmers spray their livestock paying particular attention to proper mixing, proper application of the acaricide. • FAO has provided PPEs and sample shipment materials to the National Veterinary Laboratory from the USAID funded emergency stockpiles. • A total of 237,386 cattle, 22,727 goats and 17,872 sheep were vaccinated which represent 84,6% of the risk area. In addition 457,858 animals( Cattle, goats and sheep ) were sprayed using an acaricide.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Movement control inside the country
  • Vaccination in response to the outbreak (s)
    Administrative division Species Total Vaccinated Details
    Bugesera Cattle 17500 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Gakenke Cattle 7165 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Gasabo Cattle 9176 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Gatsibo Cattle 3000 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Gisagara Cattle 7881 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Kamonyi Cattle 29092 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Kayonza Cattle 31916 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Kirehe Cattle 23552 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Muhanga Cattle 7610 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Nyamagabe Cattle 7379 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Nyanza Cattle 17840 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Nyaruguru Cattle 5000 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Ruhango Cattle 7366 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Rulindo Cattle 9478 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Gicumbi Cattle 12503 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Huye Cattle 9050 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Ngoma Cattle 29990 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
    Nyagatare Cattle 9915 Smithburn (live) KEVEVAPI
  • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
  • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
  • Screening
  • Zoning
  • Disinfection
  • Control of vectors
  • Vector surveillance
  • Ante and post-mortem inspections
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
National veterinary laboratory of Rubirizi (National laboratory) Cattle IgG-capture ELISA 29/06/2018 Positive
National veterinary laboratory of Rubirizi (National laboratory) Cattle IgM-capture ELISA 06/06/2018 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations