Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
United States of America
Information received on 03/02/2015 from Dr John Clifford, Official Delegate, Chief Trade Advisor, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, United States of America
Summary
Report type Follow-up report No. 6
Date of start of the event 10/12/2014
Date of confirmation of the event 14/12/2014
Report date 03/02/2015
Date submitted to OIE 03/02/2015
Date event resolved 22/07/2015
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 2004
Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Serotype H5N8
Nature of diagnosis Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
Related reports Immediate notification (16/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 1 (19/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 2 (29/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 3 (07/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 4 (22/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 5 (25/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 6 (03/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 7 (13/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 8 (25/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 9 (05/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 10 (20/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 11 (31/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 12 (22/04/2015)
Follow-up report No. 13 (21/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 14 (09/06/2015)
Follow-up report No. 15 (16/06/2015)
Follow-up report No. 16 (22/07/2015)
Follow-up report No. 17 (17/08/2015)
New outbreaks (4)
Outbreak 1 Whatcom County, Whatcom, Washington
Date of start of the outbreak 24/12/2014
Outbreak status Resolved (24/03/2015)
Epidemiological unit Not applicable
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
American wigeon:Anas americana(Anatidae)
Affected population Hunter harvested wild American wigeon duck
Outbreak 2 Butte County, Butte, California
Date of start of the outbreak 23/01/2015
Outbreak status Resolved (22/04/2015)
Epidemiological unit Not applicable
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
American wigeon:Anas americana(Anatidae)
Affected population Hunter harvested wild American wigeon duck.
Outbreak 3 Kootenai County, Kootenai, Idaho
Date of start of the outbreak 29/01/2015
Outbreak status Resolved (12/03/2015)
Epidemiological unit Not applicable
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Gyrfalcon:Falco rusticolus(Falconidae)
Affected population Captive wild gyrfalcon
Outbreak 4 Lincoln County, Lincoln, Nevada
Date of start of the outbreak 30/01/2015
Outbreak status Resolved (30/04/2015)
Epidemiological unit Not applicable
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Mallard:Anas platyrhynchos(Anatidae)
Affected population Hunter harvested wild mallard duck
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 4
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
American wigeon:Anas americana(Anatidae) **
Gyrfalcon:Falco rusticolus(Falconidae) **
Mallard:Anas platyrhynchos(Anatidae) **
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
American wigeon:Anas americana(Anatidae) ** ** ** **
Gyrfalcon:Falco rusticolus(Falconidae) ** ** ** **
Mallard:Anas platyrhynchos(Anatidae) ** ** ** **
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
**Not calculated because of missing information
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Contact with wild species
Epidemiological comments The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), in conjunction with State Departments of Agriculture and Wildlife, are continuing to conduct a comprehensive epidemiological investigation and enhanced surveillance (including wild bird surveillance of hunter harvested birds) in response to the HPAI H5N8 and H5N2 wild bird related events. Novel avian influenza virus of Eurasian origin (EA-H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4) spread rapidly along wild bird migratory pathways during 2014. Introduction of this EA-H5N8 virus into the Pacific Flyway sometime during 2014 has allowed mixing with North American (AM) lineage viruses and generated new combinations with genes from both EA and AM origin (or “reassortant” viruses) such as the EA/AM H5N2-reassortant detected in Canada and the US. These findings are not unexpected as the EA-H5N8 virus continues to circulate. The EA H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses are highly pathogenic for poultry.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Movement control inside the country
  • Disinfection / Disinfestation
  • Quarantine
  • Stamping out
  • Vaccination prohibited
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) American wigeon real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) 24/12/2014 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) American wigeon real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) 23/01/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) American wigeon virus sequencing 24/12/2014 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) American wigeon virus sequencing 23/01/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Gyrfalcon real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) 29/01/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Gyrfalcon virus sequencing 29/01/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Mallard real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) 30/01/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Mallard virus sequencing 30/01/2015 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations