Codes and Manuals

Terrestrial Animal Health Code


The OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (the Terrestrial Code) provides standards for the improvement of animal health and welfare and veterinary public health worldwide, including through standards for safe international trade in terrestrial animals (mammals, reptiles, birds and bees) and their products. The health measures in the Terrestrial Code should be used by the Veterinary Authorities of importing and exporting countries to provide for early detection, reporting and control agents that are pathogenic to animals or humans, and to prevent their transfer via international trade in animals and animal products, while avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers to trade. The standards in the TerrestrialCode have been adopted by the World Assembly of the Delegates which constitutes the organisation’s highest decision-making body. The following amendments were adopted at the 87th General Session in May 2019 for inclusion in the 28th edition of the TerrestrialCode.

  • Glossary (addition of ‘early warning system’, deletion of ‘early detection system’ and amendment of ‘sanitary measure’);
  • Diseases, infections and infestations listed by the OIE (Article 1.3.3.);
  • Animal health surveillance (Chapter 1.4.);
  • The role of the Veterinary Services in food safety systems (Articles 6.2.3. and 6.2.4.);
  • Introduction to recommendations for animal welfare (Article 7.1.4.);
  • Animal welfare and pig production systems (Articles 7.13.4. and 7.13.15.);
  • Infection with rabies virus (Chapter 8.14.);
  • Infection with Chlamydia abortus (Enzootic abortion of ewes, ovine chlamydiosis) (Article 14.4.1.);
  • Infection with African swine fever virus (Articles 15.1.2., 15.1.3., 15.1.4., 15.1.17., 15.1.23., 15.1.32.).
  • Introduction to recommendations for disease prevention and control of transmissible animal diseases (Chapter 4.1.);
  • Killing of reptiles for their skins, meat and other products (Chapter 7.14.).

This edition also includes the following two new chapters:


The Terrestrial Code includes a User’s Guide which is designed to help Competent Authorities and other interested parties use the Terrestrial Code.

The development of these standards and recommendations is the result of the work of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission. For more information please refer: https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/specialists-commissions-working-ad-hoc-groups/code-commission-reports/. The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) recognises the OIE as the international standard setting organisation for animal health and zoonotic diseases and specifically encourages the Members of the WTO to base their sanitary measures on international standards, guidelines and recommendations, where they exist. The Terrestrial Code is published annually in paper form in the three official OIE languages (English, French and Spanish), and in Russian. The contents of the 2019 version of the TerrestrialCode can be consulted in Web format.

Terrestrial Code
28th Edition, 2019
29.7 x 21 cm
ISBN of volume I: 978-92-95108-85-1
ISBN of volume II: 978-92-95108-86-8

Price: 100 euros
Ref.: A 249
Order online

Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals


Given the COVID-19 pandemic, the OIE 88th General Session, scheduled to take place in May 2020, has been postponed until 2021. As a result of this postponement, no adoption of new or revised OIE International Standards occurred in 2020. Therefore, the current version of the Terrestrial Manual is the 2019 edition.


The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial Manual) aims to facilitate international trade in animals and animal products and to contribute to the improvement of animal health services world-wide. The principal target readership is laboratories carrying out veterinary diagnostic tests and surveillance, plus vaccine manufacturers and regulatory authorities in Member Countries. The objective is to provide internationally agreed diagnostic laboratory methods and requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biological products. .

An outstanding compilation of diagnostic procedures and a ready source of information… for any veterinary (or parasitologic) diagnostic laboratory. The Manual has been designed for practical use in the laboratory setting. 

Journal of Parasitology

The Terrestrial Manual, covering infectious and parasitic diseases of mammals, birds and bees, was first published in 1989. Each successive edition has extended and updated the information provided. This eigth edition includes over 99 updated and 17 new chapters. This edition has a slightly different structure from former editions: Part 1 contains ten introductory chapters that set general standards for the management of veterinary diagnostic laboratories and vaccine production facilities; Part 2 comprises specific recommendations and includes eight new chapters of recommendations for validation of diagnostic tests and three new chapters of recommendations for the manufacture of vaccines; Part 3 comprises chapters on OIE listed diseases and other diseases of importance to international trade and Part 4 is the list of OIE Reference Centres at the time of publication (the list of OIE Reference Centres is updated by the World Assembly of Delegates (of OIE Member Countries) each year; the revised list is available on the OIE Web site)

The book is a mine of information for all dealing with veterinary diseases… 

SGM Quarterly
The complete edition in paper format is available in English.

Terrestrial Manual
8th Edition, 2018
Volumes 1, 2 and 3
29.7 x 21 cm
xxxvii + 1833 pages
ISBN 978-92-95108-18-9Ref: A 237
Price: 200 euros

Web format 

Contact : Scientific Department

Aquatic Animal Health Code


The OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code (the Aquatic Code) provides standards for the improvement of aquatic animal health worldwide. It also includes standards for the welfare of farmed fish and use of antimicrobial agents in aquatic animals. The sanitary measures in the Aquatic Code should be used by the Competent Authorities of importing and exporting countries for the prevention, early detection, reporting and control of pathogenic agents in aquatic animals (amphibians, crustaceans, fish and molluscs) and to prevent their spread via international trade in aquatic animals and their products, while avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers to trade.

The standards in the Aquatic Code have been adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates, which constitutes the organisation’s highest decision-making body. The following amendments were adopted at the 87th General Session in May 2019 for inclusion in the 22nd edition of the Aquatic Code:

  • Glossary: revised definition for ‘basic biosecurity conditions’;
  • Chapter 1.5. ’Criteria for listing species as susceptible to infection with a specific pathogen’;
  • Chapter 8.3. ’Infection with Ranavirus’;
  • Chapter 9.1. ’Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease’;
  • Articles 10.2.1. and 10.2.2. of Chapter 10.2. ’Infection with Aphanomyces invadans’;
  • Article 10.5.2. of Chapter 10.5.’ Infection with salmonid alphavirus’;
  • Articles 10.6.1., 10.6.2. and 10.6.8. of Chapter 10.6. ’Infection with infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus’;
  • Article 10.7.2. of Chapter 10.7. ’Infection with koi herpesvirus’;
  • Article 10.9.2. of Chapter 10.9. ’Infection with spring viraemia of carp virus’;
  • Article X.X.8. of  all disease-specific chapters (except for Article 10.3.8. of Chapter 10.3. ‘Infection with Gyrodactylus salaris‘ due to the nature of the pathogenic agent) and Article 10.4.12. of Chapter 10.4. ‘Infection with infectious salmon anaemia virus’.

The Aquatic Code includes a User’s Guide which is designed to help Competent Authorities and other interested parties use the Aquatic Code. Sections 1 to 7 of the Aquatic Code include chapters on notification, diseases listed by the OIE and surveillance for aquatic animals; risk analysis; quality of Aquatic Animal Health Services; disease prevention and control; trade measures, import/export procedures and model health certification; antimicrobial use in aquatic animals; welfare of farmed fish. Sections 8 to 11 of the Aquatic Code include disease-specific chapters for the OIE listed aquatic animal diseases. The recommendations are intended to prevent the pathogenic agent in question being introduced into an importing country. Each disease chapter includes a list of currently known susceptible species. The standards take into account the nature of the traded aquatic animals or aquatic animal products, the aquatic animal health status of the exporting country, zone or compartment, and the risk reduction measures applicable to each commodity. The development of these standards and recommendations is the result of the work by the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission. For more information please refer to http://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/specialists-commissions-working-ad-hoc-groups/aquatic-animals-commission-reports/overview/ The Aquatic Code is published annually in the three official OIE languages (English, French and Spanish). The Aquatic Code  is available online free of charge. 

A hard copy can be purchased from the OIE Online Bookshop.

Aquatic Code
22nd Edition, 2019
Format: 29.7 x 21 cm
ISBN: 978-92-95108-96-7

Price: 60 euros
Ref.: A250

Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals

… the concise and accurate description of diagnostic techniques contained in this Manual is indispensable for anyone involved in the control of aquatic animal diseases. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift


Given the COVID-19 pandemic, the OIE 88th General Session, scheduled to take place in May 2020, has been postponed until 2021. As a result of this postponement, no adoption of new or revised OIE International Standards occurred in 2020. Therefore, no edition of the Aquatic Manual was published in 2020. The latest version is therefore the 2019 edition.


The purpose of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals (the Aquatic Manual) is to provide a standardised approach to the diagnosis of the diseases listed in the Aquatic Code, to facilitate health certification for trade in aquatic animals and aquatic animal products.

Although there are many publications on the diagnosis and control of aquatic animal diseases, the Aquatic Manual is a key reference document describing the methods relevant to the OIE-listed diseases and other important diseases for use by aquatic animal health laboratories around the world. Adoption of the specified methods will help to increase efficiency of laboratories and to promote improvements in aquatic animal health world-wide.

The OIE Aquatic Animals Commission is responsible for compiling the Aquatic Manual and all chapters are circulated to OIE Members for comment. The Aquatic Manual is continually revised and updated as new information becomes available. The OIE intends to publish a new edition approximately every four years; periodic updates will be provided via the OIE Web site.

The Aquatic Manual is available in English and Spanish only.

Aquatic Manual
7th Edition, 2016
Format: 29.7 x 21 cm, 589 pp.
ISBN 978-92-9044-887-7
Price: 100 euros
Ref.: A204


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