Aquatic Animal Health Code

Contents | Index Guide Chapter 1.1.


Glossary


For the purpose of the Aquatic Code:

antimicrobial agent

means a naturally occurring, semi-synthetic or synthetic substance that at in vivo concentrations exhibits antimicrobial activity (kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms). Anthelmintics and substances classed as disinfectants or antiseptics are excluded from this definition.

aquaculture

means the farming of aquatic animals with some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc.

aquaculture establishment

means an establishment in which amphibians, fish, molluscs or crustaceans for breeding, stocking or sale are raised or kept.

aquatic animal health professional

means a person who, for the purposes of the Aquatic Code, is authorised by the Competent Authority to carry out certain designated tasks in a territory and has the appropriate qualifications and training to perform the designated tasks.

aquatic Animal Health Services

means the governmental and non-governmental organisations that implement animal health and welfare measures and other standards and recommendations in the Aquatic Code in the territory. The Aquatic Animal Health Services are under the overall control and direction of the Competent Authority. Private sector organisations, veterinarians or aquatic animal health professionals are normally accredited or approved by the Competent Authority to deliver the delegated functions.

aquatic animal health status

means the status of a country, zone or compartment with respect to an aquatic animaldisease in accordance with the criteria listed in the relevant chapter of the Aquatic Code dealing with the disease.

aquatic animal products

means non-viable aquatic animals and products from aquatic animals.

aquatic animals

means all life stages (including eggs and gametes) of fish, molluscs, crustaceans and amphibians originating from aquaculture establishments or removed from the wild, for farming purposes, for release into the environment, for human consumption or for ornamental purposes.

Aquatic Code

means the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code.

Aquatic Manual

means the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals.

basic biosecurity conditions

means a set of conditions applying to a particular disease, and a particular zone or country, required to ensure adequate disease security, such as:

  1. the disease, including suspicion of the disease, is compulsorily notifiable to the Competent Authority; and

  2. an early detection system is in place within the zone or country; and

  3. import requirements to prevent the introduction of disease into the country or zone, as outlined in the Aquatic Code, are in place.

bias

means a tendency of an estimate to differ in a non-random fashion from the true value of a population parameter.

biological products

means:

  1. biological reagents for use in the diagnosis of certain diseases;

  2. sera for use in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases;

  3. inactivated or modified vaccines for use in preventive vaccination against certain diseases;

  4. genetic material of infectious agents;

  5. endocrine tissues from fish or used in fish.

biosecurity

means a set of management and physical measures designed to reduce the risk of introduction, establishment and spread of pathogenic agents to, from and within an aquatic animal population.

biosecurity plan

means a plan that identifies significant potential pathways for the introduction and spread of disease in a zone or compartment, and describes the measures which are being, or will be, applied to mitigate the risks to introduce and spread disease, taking into consideration the recommendations in the Aquatic Code. The plan should also describe how these measures are audited, with respect to both their implementation and their targeting, to ensure that the risks are regularly re-assessed and the measures adjusted accordingly.

case

means an individual aquatic animal infected by a pathogenic agent, with or without clinical signs.

case definition

is a set of criteria used to distinguish a case animal or an epidemiological unit from a non-case.

certifying official

means a person authorised by the Competent Authority to sign health certificates for aquatic animals.

commodity

means aquatic animals, aquatic animal products, biological products and pathological material.

compartment

means one or more aquaculture establishments under a common biosecurity management system containing an aquatic animal population with a distinct health status with respect to a specific disease or diseases for which required surveillance and control measures are applied and basic biosecurity conditions are met for the purpose of international trade. Such compartments must be clearly documented by the Competent Authority(ies).

Competent Authority

means the Veterinary Authority or other Governmental Authority of a Member Country having the responsibility and competence for ensuring or supervising the implementation of aquatic animal health and welfare measures, international health certification and other standards and recommendations in the Aquatic Code in the whole territory.

container

means a transport appliance:

  1. of a permanent type and sufficiently strong to enable repeated use;

  2. specially constructed to facilitate transport of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products by one or several means of transport;

  3. provided with fittings that make it easy to manipulate, particularly for trans-shipment from one kind of transport vehicle to another;

  4. constructed in a watertight way, easy to load and unload and capable of being cleansed and disinfected;

  5. ensuring safe and optimal transport of aquatic animals.

contingency plan

means a documented work plan designed to ensure that all needed actions, requirements and resources are provided in order to eradicate or bring under control outbreaks of specified diseases of aquatic animals.

diagnosis

means determination of the nature of a disease.

disease

means clinical or non-clinical infection with one or more aetiological agents.

disinfectants

means chemical compounds or physical processes capable of destroying pathogenic agents or inhibiting their growth in the course of disinfection.

disinfection

means the process of cleaning and applying disinfectants to inactivate pathogenic agents on potentially contaminated items.

early detection system

means an efficient system for ensuring the rapid recognition of signs that are suspicious of a listed disease, or an emerging disease situation, or unexplained mortality, in aquatic animals in an aquaculture establishment or in the wild, and the rapid communication of the event to the Competent Authority, with the aim of activating diagnostic investigation by the Aquatic Animal Health Services with minimal delay. Such a system will include the following characteristics:

  1. broad awareness, e.g. among the personnel employed at aquaculture establishments or involved in processing, of the characteristic signs of the listed diseases and emerging diseases;

  2. veterinarians or aquatic animal health professionals trained in recognising and reporting suspicions of disease occurrence;

  3. ability of the Aquatic Animal Health Services to undertake rapid and effective disease investigation based on a national chain of command;

  4. access by the Aquatic Animal Health Services to laboratories with the facilities for diagnosing and differentiating listed diseases and emerging diseases;

  5. the legal obligation of private veterinarians or aquatic animal health professionals to report suspicions of disease occurrence to the Competent Authority.

egg

means a viable fertilised ovum of an aquatic animal. ‘Green eggs’ means newly fertilised ova of fish. ‘Eyed eggs’ means eggs of fish where the eyes of the embryo are visible and that the eggs may be transported.

emerging disease

means a disease, other than listed diseases, which has a significant impact on aquatic animal or public health resulting from:

  1. a change of known pathogenic agent or its spread to a new geographic area or species; or

  2. a newly recognised or suspected pathogenic agent.

epidemiological unit

means a group of animals that share approximately the same risk of exposure to a pathogenic agent with a defined location. This may be because they share a common aquatic environment (e.g. fish in a pond, caged fish in a lake), or because management practices make it likely that a pathogenic agent in one group of animals would quickly spread to other animals (e.g. all the ponds on a farm, all the ponds in a village system).

eviscerated fish

means fish from which internal organs, excluding the brain and gills, have been removed.

exporting country

means a country from which aquatic animals or aquatic animal products, biological products or pathological material are sent to a destination in another country.

fallowing

means, for disease management purposes, an operation where an aquaculture establishment is emptied of aquatic animals susceptible to a disease of concern or known to be capable of transferring the pathogenic agent, and, where feasible, of the carrying water. For aquatic animals of unknown susceptibility and those agreed not to be capable of acting as carriers of a disease of concern, decisions on fallowing should be based on a risk assessment.

feed

means any material (single or multiple), whether processed, semi-processed or raw, as well as live organisms, which is intended to be fed directly to aquatic animals.

feed ingredient

means a component, part or constituent of any combination or mixture making up a feed, including feed additives, whether or not it has a nutritional value in the animal’s diet. Ingredients may be of terrestrial or aquatic, plant or animal origin and may be organic or inorganic substances.

free compartment

means a compartment that fulfils the requirements for self-declaration of freedom from disease with respect to the disease(s) under consideration in accordance with the relevant chapter(s) in the Aquatic Code.

free country

means a country that fulfils the requirements for self-declaration of freedom from disease with respect to the disease(s) under consideration in accordance with the relevant chapter(s) in the Aquatic Code.

free zone

means a zone that fulfils the requirements for self-declaration of freedom from disease with respect to the disease(s) under consideration in accordance with the relevant chapter(s) in the Aquatic Code.

frontier post

means any international airport or any port, railway station or road post open to international trade.

gametes

means the sperm or unfertilised eggs of aquatic animals that are held or transported separately prior to fertilisation.

hazard

means a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or a condition of, an aquatic animal or aquatic animal product with the potential to cause an adverse effect on aquatic animal health or public health.

Headquarters

means the Permanent Secretariat of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), located at:

12, rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, FRANCE
Telephone: 33-(0)1 44 15 18 88
Fax: 33-(0)1 42 67 09 87
Electronic mail: oie@oie.int
WWW: http://www.oie.int

importing country

means a country that is the final destination to which aquatic animals, aquatic animal products, biological products or pathological material are sent.

incidence

means the number of new outbreaks of disease within a specified period of time in a defined aquatic animal population.

infected zone

means a zone in which a disease has been diagnosed.

infection

means the presence of a multiplying or otherwise developing or latent pathogenic agent in a host. This term is understood to include infestation where the pathogenic agent is a parasite in or on a host.

international aquatic animal health certificate

means a certificate, issued in conformity with the provisions of Chapter 5.11., describing the aquatic animal health and/or public health requirements that should be fulfilled prior to export of commodity.

international trade

means import, export or transit of aquatic animals, aquatic animal products, biological products and pathological material.

listed diseases

means diseases that are referred to in Chapter 1.3.

meal

means a product derived from an aquatic animal that has been ground and heat processed to reduce the moisture content to less than 10%.

notification

means the procedure by which:

  1. the Competent Authority informs the Headquarters,

  2. the Headquarters inform Competent Authorities of Member Countries

of the occurrence of a disease in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1.1.

outbreak

means an occurrence of one or more cases in an epidemiological unit.

pathogenic agent

means an organism that causes or contributes to the development of a disease.

pathological material

means samples obtained from live or dead aquatic animals, containing or suspected of containing pathogenic agents, to be sent to a laboratory.

prevalence

means the total number of infected aquatic animals expressed as a percentage of the total number of aquatic animals in a given aquatic animal population at one specific time.

probability sampling

means a sampling strategy in which every unit has a known non-zero probability of inclusion in the sample.

protection zone

means a zone established to protect the health status of aquatic animals in a free country or free zone, from those in a country or zone of a different aquatic animal health status, using measures based on the epidemiology of the disease under consideration to prevent spread of the pathogenic agent into a free country or free zone. These measures may include, but are not limited to, vaccination, movement control and an intensified degree of surveillance.

quarantine

means maintaining a group of aquatic animals in isolation with no direct or indirect contact with other aquatic animals, in order to undergo observation for a specified length of time and, if appropriate, testing and treatment, including proper treatment of the effluent waters.

risk

means the likelihood of the occurrence and the likely magnitude of the biological and economic consequences of an adverse event or effect to animal or human health.

risk analysis

means the process composed of hazard identification, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.

risk assessment

means the scientific evaluation of the likelihood and the biological and economic consequences of entry, establishment and spread of a hazard.

risk communication

is the interactive exchange of information and opinions throughout the risk analysis process concerning risk, risk-related factors and risk perceptions among risk assessors, risk managers, risk communicators, the general public and other interested parties.

risk management

means the process of identifying, selecting and implementing measures that can be applied to reduce the level of risk.

sanitary measure

means a measure, such as those described in various chapters of the Aquatic Code, destined to protect aquatic animal or human health or life within the territory of the Member Country from risks arising from the entry, establishment and/or spread of a hazard.

self-declaration of freedom from disease

means declaration by the Competent Authority of the Member Country concerned that the country, zone or compartment is free from a listed disease based on implementation of the provisions of the Aquatic Code and the Aquatic Manual. [NOTE: The Member Country is encouraged to inform the OIE of its claimed status and the OIE may publish the claim but publication does not imply OIE endorsement of the claim.]

sensitivity

means the proportion of true positive tests given in a diagnostic test, i.e. the number of true positive results divided by the number of true positive and false negative results.

specificity

means the probability that absence of infection will be correctly identified by a diagnostic test, i.e. the number of true negative results divided by the number of true negative and false positive results.

stamping-out policy

means the carrying out under the authority of the Competent Authority, on confirmation of a disease, of preventive aquatic animal health measures, consisting of killing the aquatic animals that are affected, those suspected of being affected in the population and those in other populations that have been exposed to infection by direct or indirect contact of a kind likely to cause the transmission of the pathogenic agent. All these aquatic animals, vaccinated or unvaccinated, on an infected site should be killed and the carcasses destroyed by burning or burial, or by any other method that will eliminate the spread of infection through the carcasses or products of the aquatic animals destroyed.

This policy should be accompanied by cleansing and disinfection procedures as defined in the Aquatic Code. Fallowing should be for an appropriate period determined by risk assessment.

study population

means the population from which surveillance data are derived. This may be the same as the target population or a subset of it.

subpopulation

means a distinct part of a population identifiable in accordance with specific common aquatic animal health characteristics.

surveillance

means a systematic series of investigations of a given population of aquatic animals to detect the occurrence of disease for control purposes, and which may involve testing samples of a population.

susceptible species

means a species of aquatic animal in which infection has been demonstrated by the occurrence of natural cases or by experimental exposure to the pathogenic agent that mimics natural transmission pathways.

target population

means, for the purposes of demonstrating freedom from infection, the population of interest, usually made up of all aquatic animals of species susceptible to a specified pathogenic agent in a defined country, zone or aquaculture establishment.

targeted surveillance

means surveillance targeted at a specific disease or infection.

territory

means land and water under jurisdiction of a country.

transit country

means a country through which aquatic animals, aquatic animal products, biological products or pathological material destined for an importing country, are transported or in which a stopover is made at a frontier post.

unit

means individually identifiable elements. This is a generic concept used to describe, for example, the members of a population, or the elements selected when sampling. In these contexts, examples of units include individual animals, ponds, nets, cages, farms, villages, districts, etc.

vehicle

means any method of transport by land, air or water.

veterinarian

means a person with appropriate education, registered or licensed by the relevant veterinary statutory body of a country to practise veterinary medicine/science in that country.

Veterinary Authority

means the Governmental Authority of a Member Country, comprising veterinarians, other professionals and para-professionals, having the responsibility and competence for ensuring or supervising the implementation of aquatic animal health and welfare measures, international aquatic animal health certification and other standards and recommendations in the Aquatic Code in the whole territory.

veterinary statutory body

means an autonomous authority regulating veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals.

water catchment

means an area or basin of land bounded by natural features such as hills or mountains, into which all run-off water flows.

zone

means a portion of one or more countries comprising:

  1. an entire water catchment from the source of a waterway to the estuary or lake, or

  2. more than one water catchment, or

  3. part of a water catchment from the source of a waterway to a barrier that prevents the introduction of a specific disease or diseases, or

  4. part of a coastal area with a precise geographical delimitation, or

  5. an estuary with a precise geographical delimitation,

that consists of a contiguous hydrological system with a distinct health status with respect to a specific disease or diseases. The zones must be clearly documented (e.g. by a map or other precise locators such as GPS co-ordinates) by the Competent Authority(ies).


2015 ©OIE - Aquatic Animal Health Code

Contents | Index Guide Chapter 1.1.