Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
United States of America
Information received on 12/03/2015 from Dr John Clifford, Official Delegate, Chief Trade Advisor, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, United States of America
Summary
Report type Follow-up report No. 8
Date of start of the event 10/12/2014
Date of confirmation of the event 15/12/2014
Report date 12/03/2015
Date submitted to OIE 12/03/2015
Date event resolved 13/11/2015
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 2004
Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Serotype H5N2
Nature of diagnosis Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
Related reports Immediate notification (16/12/2014)
Follow-up report No. 1 (07/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 2 (13/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 3 (22/01/2015)
Follow-up report No. 4 (03/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 5 (17/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 6 (24/02/2015)
Follow-up report No. 7 (06/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 8 (12/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 9 (20/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 10 (31/03/2015)
Follow-up report No. 11 (08/04/2015)
Follow-up report No. 12 (15/04/2015)
Follow-up report No. 13 (24/04/2015)
Follow-up report No. 14 (01/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 15 (08/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 16 (20/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 17 (29/05/2015)
Follow-up report No. 18 (09/06/2015)
Follow-up report No. 19 (17/06/2015)
Follow-up report No. 20 (26/06/2015)
Follow-up report No. 21 (02/07/2015)
Follow-up report No. 22 (22/07/2015)
Follow-up report No. 23 (31/07/2015)
Follow-up report No. 24 (10/08/2015)
Follow-up report No. 25 (17/08/2015)
Follow-up report No. 26 (24/08/2015)
Follow-up report No. 27 (01/09/2015)
Follow-up report No. 28 (08/09/2015)
Follow-up report No. 29 (14/09/2015)
Follow-up report No. 30 (21/09/2015)
Follow-up report No. 31 (07/10/2015)
Follow-up report No. 32 (13/10/2015)
Follow-up report No. 33 (13/11/2015)
Follow-up report No. 34 (18/11/2015)
New outbreaks (4)
Outbreak 1 (29) Moniteau County, Moniteau, Missouri
Date of start of the outbreak 04/03/2015
Outbreak status Resolved (13/06/2015)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Birds 23000 3260
Affected population A commercial turkey flock.
Outbreak 2 (28) Jasper County, Jasper, Missouri
Date of start of the outbreak 05/03/2015
Outbreak status Resolved (23/05/2015)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Birds 30100 1925 28175 0
Affected population A 20 week old commercial turkey flock.
Outbreak 3 (27) Jefferson County, Jefferson, Washington
Date of start of the outbreak 05/03/2015
Outbreak status Resolved (05/06/2015)
Epidemiological unit Not applicable
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Canada Goose:Branta canadensis(Anatidae)
Affected population Wild bird surveillance.
Outbreak 4 (30) Boone County, Boone, Arkansas
Date of start of the outbreak 08/03/2015
Outbreak status Resolved (14/04/2015)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Birds 40020 1766 38254 0
Affected population A 8 week old commercial turkey flock.
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 4
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Birds 93120 ** 6951 66429 0
Canada Goose:Branta canadensis(Anatidae) **
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Birds ** 7.46% ** **
Canada Goose:Branta canadensis(Anatidae) ** ** ** **
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
**Not calculated because of missing information
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Contact with wild species
Epidemiological comments The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), in conjunction with State Departments of Agriculture and Wildlife, are continuing to conduct a comprehensive epidemiological investigation and enhanced surveillance (including wild bird surveillance of hunter harvested birds) in response to the HPAI H5N8 and H5N2 wild bird related events. Novel avian influenza virus of Eurasian origin (EA-H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4) spread rapidly along wild bird migratory pathways during 2014. Introduction of this EA-H5N8 virus into the Pacific Flyway sometime during 2014 has allowed mixing with North American (AM) lineage viruses and generated new combinations with genes from both EA and AM origin (or “reassortant” viruses) such as this EA/AM H5N2-reassortant detected in Canada and the US. These findings are not unexpected as the EA-H5N8 virus continues to circulate. The EA-H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses are highly pathogenic for poultry. On 8 & 9 March 2015, the USDA APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) confirmed HPAI EA/AM H5N2 positive results from two commercial turkey flocks. One turkey flock in Jasper County, Missouri, and one turkey flock in Moniteau County, Missouri. Partial HA/NA sequence is >99% similar to A/northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014 based upon direct sequence attempt from turkey swab specimen. These are the first detections of HPAI EA/AM H5N2 in Missouri. On 11 March 2015, the USDA APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) confirmed HPAI EA/AM H5N2 positive results from a commercial turkey flock in Boone County, Arkansas. Partial HA/NA sequence is >99% similar to A/northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014 based upon direct sequence attempt from turkey swab specimen. This is the first detection of HPAI EA/AM H5N2 in Arkansas.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Stamping out
  • Zoning
  • Quarantine
  • Disinfection / Disinfestation
  • Movement control inside the country
  • Vaccination prohibited
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Birds real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) 08/03/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Birds real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) 09/03/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Birds real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) 11/03/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Birds virus sequencing 08/03/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Birds virus sequencing 09/03/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Birds virus sequencing 11/03/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Canada Goose real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) 05/03/2015 Positive
National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) (National laboratory) Canada Goose virus sequencing 05/03/2015 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations