Caprine arthritis/encephalitis,
Information received on 21/01/2019 from Dr Him Hoo Yap, Chief Veterinary Officer, Director General, Animal & Veterinary Service, National Parks Board, Singapore, Singapore
Report type Immediate notification
Date of start of the event 29/10/2018
Date of confirmation of the event 20/11/2018
Report date 21/01/2019
Date submitted to OIE 21/01/2019
Date event resolved 15/02/2019
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 1989
Manifestation of disease Sub-clinical infection
Causal agent Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus
Nature of diagnosis Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to the whole country
Related reports Immediate notification (21/01/2019)
Follow-up report No. 1 (15/02/2019)
New outbreaks (1)
Outbreak 1 Singapore, Singapore
Date of start of the outbreak 29/10/2018
Outbreak status Resolved (15/02/2019)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Goats 420 22 0 0 0
Affected population The affected population is the only dairy goat farm in Singapore, with a standing population of approximately 420 goats with mixed age groups, sex and breeds (Alpine, Nubian, Saanens, Toggenburg). Goats are housed in elevated sheltered sheds, separated into different pens.
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Goats 420 22 0 0 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Goats 5.24% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Unknown or inconclusive
Epidemiological comments Caprine arthritis/encephalitis virus (CAEV) antibodies were detected in 10 goat serum samples collected from the only dairy goat farm in Singapore as part of a point survey. These 10 positive samples have also been verified positive for CAEV antibody by the Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK. Following the detection, a field visit was conducted and an additional 12 goats tested positive on ELISA or RT-PCR. Milk samples also tested positive for CAEV antibodies and RNA. The goats did not display any clinical signs of infection with CAEV. The farmer has been advised on appropriate husbandry practices to minimise the spread in his herd through ingestion of CAEV-infected colostrum or milk or prolonged contact with infected goats (e.g. use of milk replacers or pasteurised milk for kids and segregation of sero-positive and sero-negative goats).
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Screening
  • Vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists)
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
Animal Health Laboratory (National laboratory) Goats enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 20/11/2018 Positive
Animal Health Laboratory (National laboratory) Goats reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 28/11/2018 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations