Equine influenza,
Colombia
Information received on 15/03/2019 from Dra. Deyanira Barrero León, Gerente General, Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, BOGOTA, Colombia
Summary
Report type Follow-up report No. 16 (Final report)
Date of start of the event 18/06/2018
Date of confirmation of the event 28/07/2018
Report date 15/03/2019
Date submitted to OIE 15/03/2019
Date event resolved 15/03/2019
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 03/05/2010
Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
Causal agent Equine influenza virus
Serotype H3N8
Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to the whole country
Related reports Immediate notification (31/08/2018)
Follow-up report No. 1 (07/09/2018)
Follow-up report No. 2 (12/09/2018)
Follow-up report No. 3 (21/09/2018)
Follow-up report No. 4 (27/09/2018)
Follow-up report No. 5 (05/10/2018)
Follow-up report No. 6 (11/10/2018)
Follow-up report No. 7 (18/10/2018)
Follow-up report No. 8 (25/10/2018)
Follow-up report No. 9 (14/11/2018)
Follow-up report No. 10 (15/11/2018)
Follow-up report No. 11 (20/11/2018)
Follow-up report No. 12 (29/11/2018)
Follow-up report No. 13 (06/12/2018)
Follow-up report No. 14 (09/01/2019)
Follow-up report No. 15 (25/01/2019)
Follow-up report No. 16 (15/03/2019)
New outbreaks (4)
Outbreak 1 (PUTUMAYO) Mayoyoque, Mayoyoque, Puerto Guzman, Putumayo
Date of start of the outbreak 16/01/2019
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 30 22 0 0 0
Affected population No differentiation according to the type of farm or by age of the affected equine population
Outbreak 2 (CALDAS) Pesebrera los Paisas, Alto Tablazo, Manizalez, Caldas
Date of start of the outbreak 17/01/2019
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 23 6 0 0 0
Outbreak 3 (CALDAS) El Descanso, La Palma, Manizalez, Caldas
Date of start of the outbreak 17/01/2019
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 4 4 0 0 0
Outbreak 4 (CALDAS) La Matraca, Alto Tablazo, Manizalez, Caldas
Date of start of the outbreak 17/01/2019
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 18 5 0 0 0
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 4
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 75 37 0 0 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Equidae 49.33% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Unknown or inconclusive
Epidemiological comments Equine influenza virus is supposed to have been circulating since June 2018 and to have spread during equestrian sporting events; this explains its rapid spread to all equines not having been properly immunized. As a result of the surveillance, 346 reports of clinical signs compatible with a respiratory disease in equines were received between July 2018 and February 2019; 11 were discarded through laboratory tests and 335 were diagnosed as caused by H3N8 equine influenza virus, clinical signs going from mild to severe, with a low mortality rate in the affected equines. Cases were spatially distributed all over Colombia (22 out of the 32 departments), from the midwest through the mountain ranges to the north and southwest of the country. Valle del Cauca is the most affected department, with 50 (14.9%) outbreaks. It is followed by Quindío with 46 outbreaks (13.7%), Antioquía with 33 outbreaks (9.9%), Bolívar with 26 outbreaks (7.8%), Risaralda and Tolima with 22 outbreaks each (6.6%), Caldas with 20 outbreaks (6%), Santander with 19 outbreaks (5.7%), Cundinamarca with 17 outbreaks (5.1%), Norte de Santander with 14 outbreaks (4.2%) and Cauca with 12 outbreaks (3.6%). The remaining 16.1% was distributed in departments with less than 10 outbreaks (Atlántico, Nariño, Boyacá, Córdoba, Huila, Caquetá, Putumayo, Magdalena, Sucre, Meta and Cesar). In addition, 7,979 equines were monitored in the affected departments during the epidemic; 3,529 were sick. The equines did not show any different pathognomonic signs, going from mild to severe, with cough and nasal discharge from aqueous to mucopurulent being the main signs in the affected horses. The overall morbidity rate was 44.2%, with a mortality rate of 0.04%. The reoccurrence of equine influenza in the country after so many years could have been caused by low immune coverage. In Colombia, equine influenza vaccine is required for equine movements, especially for the animals attending events with concentration of equine population; however, there is no official vaccination campaign against this disease, with therefore a lower application of the vaccine. Thanks to the joint work of the ICA (Colombian Agriculture and Livestock Institute) and the professionals, the epidemic is under control. However, as new outbreaks continue to occur, Colombia considers the situation to be endemic on its whole territory.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Quarantine
  • Movement control inside the country
  • Vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists)
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Future Reporting
The event cannot be considered resolved, but the situation is sufficiently stable. No more follow-up reports will be sent. Information about this disease will be included in the next six-monthly reports.
Map of outbreak locations