Foot and mouth disease,
Malawi
Information received on 25/05/2019 from Dr Patrick Chikungwa, Director of Department of Animal Health and Livestock Development, Department of Animal Health and Livestock Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation an Water Development, LILONGWE, Malawi
Summary
Report type Immediate notification
Date of start of the event 21/02/2019
Date of confirmation of the event 01/03/2019
Report date 25/05/2019
Date submitted to OIE 25/05/2019
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 01/2019
Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
Causal agent Foot and mouth disease virus
Serotype SAT 2
Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (basic)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
Related reports Immediate notification (25/05/2019)
Follow-up report No. 1 (17/07/2019)
New outbreaks (1)
Outbreak 1 Zioni, Mzimba, Mzimba
Date of start of the outbreak 21/02/2019
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Village
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 80000 284 0 0 0
Affected population The cattle in this area are naive to the disease as the last outbreak was detected in year 2000. Communal grazing system and watering are practiced in the area.
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Cattle 80000 284 0 0 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Cattle 0.36% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Introduction of new live animals
  • Illegal movement of animals
  • Animals in transit
  • Contact with infected animal(s) at grazing/watering
Epidemiological comments Twenty sera samples collected were positive on ELISA 3ABC. The population at risk is in a communal grazing system. Illegal animal movement is the main source suspected for the introduction of infected animals to the area. Samples from Mzimba and Chitipa were sent to Botswana Vaccine Institute for serotyping and the results showed that Mzimba District has SAT 2 and Chitipa has type A with some traces of SAT types respectively. Spillover into the adjacent district for Mzimba (Kasungu) was included in the vaccinations. Vaccinations were instituted in April (primer 61,886) with trivalent SAT types 1, 2 and 3 and booster in May 2019 (37,906, still continuing). Additional cases observed in Chitipa (7) and Kasungu (32), which is bordering Mzimba. Note: This outbreak first reported with outbreaks in Chitipa is reported now as a separate event since it concerns a different serotype (SAT 2).
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Movement control inside the country
  • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
  • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
  • Quarantine
  • Ante and post-mortem inspections
  • Vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists)
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • Vaccination in response to the outbreak (s)
  • Disinfection
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
Central Veterinary Laboratory (National laboratory) Cattle ELISA 3ABC 01/03/2019 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations