Glanders,
Kuwait
Information received on 31/07/2019 from Dr Ali Al-Qattan, Deputy of Director General of Animal Wealth, Animal Wealth, Public Authority of Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources, Safat, Kuwait
Summary
Report type Immediate notification
Date of start of the event 09/07/2019
Date of confirmation of the event 28/07/2019
Report date 31/07/2019
Date submitted to OIE 31/07/2019
Reason for notification Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 19/12/2010
Manifestation of disease Sub-clinical infection
Causal agent Burkholderia mallei
Nature of diagnosis Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced), Necropsy
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
Related reports Immediate notification (31/07/2019)
Follow-up report No. 1 (08/10/2019)
Follow-up report No. 2 (31/10/2019)
Follow-up report No. 3 (24/12/2019)
Follow-up report No. 4 (09/05/2020)
New outbreaks (1)
Outbreak 1 Wafra farms, Wafra, Wafra, Al Ahmadi
Date of start of the outbreak 09/07/2019
Outbreak status Resolved (17/09/2019)
Epidemiological unit Farm
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 44 6 0 6 0
Affected population Domestic horses in an equine farm in Wafra
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 44 6 0 6 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Equidae 13.64% 0.00% 0.00% 13.64%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Unknown or inconclusive
Epidemiological comments Glanders has been eradicated in Kowe´t with active and targeted surveillance in equine and regained free status by self-declaration on March 2012. Since then in order to maintain free status active serological surveillance being continued and as on date, all horses serologically tested at regular interval in the National Veterinary laboratory. After resuming export, horses selected for export were routinely tested on blood samples for glanders in the National Veterinary Laboratory and in the OIE Reference Laboratory, Dubai, UAE for glanders and other equine diseases. As pre export sanitary requirements, five horses were quarantined and blood samples has been sent to the OIE Reference Laboratory Dubai, UAE for equine diseases negative results. Among five horses, two horses were found to be positive for glanders by Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Affected equine farm immediately brought under veterinary authority control, quarantine and movement restrictions enforced within and outside farm by the law to animal owners. Horse exportation to the trading partners countries suspended. Followed by the results, blood samples were collected for all 43 horses kept in the equine farm, two blood samples has been sent for reconfirmation(as requested the said reference laboratory) to the OIE Reference Laboratory, Dubai UAE and remaining 41 blood samples were tested in national veterinary laboratory. One horse found to be positive for glanders in the national veterinary laboratory and two horses positive in the said OIE Reference Laboratory. These three horses were apparently normal and not exhibited clinical signs of glanders. Affected three horses has been killed for post mortem examination, after relevant specimens collected for bacteriological examination for Burkholderia mallei the carcasses deeply buried with disinfection procedures. Affected holding cleaned and disinfected with an appropriate disinfectant. Among the affected horses, one imported from abroad in 2015 and other two were born and being reared in the farm. Follow up investigation carried out all contacts (40 horses) kept in the affected holding were not exhibited clinical signs of glanders and retested on blood samples with negative results by CFT in the National Veterinary laboratory. Further testing will be done at 2 weeks interval for three times for negative results. In order to control and eradicate glanders in Kowe´t, and regain free status for glanders, animal health surveillance being carried out according to the OIE terrestrial code chapter 1.4 and Chapter 12.10, article 12.10.8-12.10.9. Any new cases or new outbreaks will be submitted in the follow up reports.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Movement control inside the country
  • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
  • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
  • Traceability
  • Quarantine
  • Official destruction of animal products
  • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
  • Selective killing and disposal
  • Zoning
  • Disinfection
  • Ante and post-mortem inspections
  • Vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists)
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
Central Veterinary and Research Laboratory (National laboratory) Domestic horses complement fixation test (CFT) 14/07/2019 Positive
Central Veterinary and Research Laboratory, Dubai UAE (OIE Reference Laboratory) Domestic horses complement fixation test (CFT) 28/07/2019 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations