African horse sickness,
Information received on 02/09/2020 from Dr Dato'Dr Norlizan Mohd Noor, Director General, Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry, Putrajaya, Malaysia
Report type Immediate notification
Date of start of the event 06/08/2020
Date of confirmation of the event 27/08/2020
Report date 02/09/2020
Date submitted to OIE 02/09/2020
Reason for notification First occurrence of a listed disease in the country
Causal agent African horse sickness virus
Serotype Pending
Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (basic)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
Related reports Immediate notification (02/09/2020)
Follow-up report No. 1 (09/09/2020)
Follow-up report No. 2 (16/09/2020)
Follow-up report No. 3 (23/09/2020)
Follow-up report No. 4 (30/09/2020)
Follow-up report No. 5 (07/10/2020)
Follow-up report No. 6 (14/10/2020)
Follow-up report No. 7 (21/10/2020)
Follow-up report No. 8 (28/10/2020)
Follow-up report No. 9 (04/11/2020)
Follow-up report No. 10 (11/11/2020)
Follow-up report No. 11 (18/11/2020)
Follow-up report No. 12 (27/11/2020)
Follow-up report No. 13 (02/12/2020)
Follow-up report No. 14 (13/12/2020)
Follow-up report No. 15 (20/12/2020)
Follow-up report No. 16 (28/12/2020)
Follow-up report No. 17 (04/01/2021)
Follow-up report No. 18 (12/01/2021)
New outbreaks (1)
Outbreak 1 (VRI 5114/2020) Lot 256 Kampung Banggol Tok Esah 20050 Kuala Terengganu Manir, Manir, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu
Date of start of the outbreak 06/08/2020
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Backyard
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 5 5 0 5 0
Affected population The affected population are horses reared at a backyard.
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Equidae 5 5 0 5 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Equidae 100.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Unknown or inconclusive
Epidemiological comments On 6th August 2020, the owner notified the Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) State Office that two of his five horses were limping and that he suspected them to have soft soles. The owner also complained that his two limping horses were showing difficulty in breathing. However, during the visit, the difficulty in breathing was not observed by the veterinary officer. A week after the first visit (17th August 2020), the owner reported to the DVS that a third horse was having fever and suffering from difficulty in breathing. The horse was treated with dexamethasone and benacillin. Then, three days after the second visit, the fourth horse was reported limping with swollen hind leg. Blood samples were taken from the four affected horses and sent to the Veterinary Research Institute (VRI) in Ipoh for analysis. The RT-PCR showed that the four horses were positive for African horse sickness. Disease investigation was conducted on 31 August 2020 and second sampling for blood, nasal swabs and eye discharge was performed. The RT-PCR results from VRI showed all the five horses were positive for African horse sickness. Epidemiological investigation to determine the source of infection is ongoing.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Movement control inside the country
  • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
  • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
  • Screening
  • Traceability
  • Quarantine
  • Vaccination prohibited
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • Selective killing and disposal
  • Zoning
  • Disinfestation
  • Control of vectors
  • Vector surveillance
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
Veterinary Research Institute, Ipoh (National laboratory) Equidae reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 27/08/2020 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations