Rabbit haemorrhagic disease,
Singapore
Information received on 17/09/2020 from Dr Him Hoo Yap, Chief Veterinary Officer, Director General, Animal & Veterinary Service, National Parks Board, Singapore, Singapore
Summary
Report type Immediate notification
Date of start of the event 24/08/2020
Date of confirmation of the event 16/09/2020
Report date 17/09/2020
Date submitted to OIE 17/09/2020
Reason for notification First occurrence of a listed disease in the country
Causal agent Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus
Serotype RHDV2
Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to the whole country
Related reports Immediate notification (17/09/2020)
Follow-up report No. 1 (25/09/2020)
Follow-up report No. 2 (09/10/2020)
Follow-up report No. 3 (28/10/2020)
Follow-up report No. 4 (05/11/2020)
New outbreaks (1)
Outbreak 1 Singapore, Singapore
Date of start of the outbreak 24/08/2020
Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit Other
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Rabbits 11 10 8 0 0
Affected population The eleven pet rabbits were from three different owners and two of whom had reported history of contact with one another. Eight out of eleven rabbits across the three households have since died.
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Rabbits 11 10 8 0 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Rabbits 90.91% 72.73% 80.00% 72.73%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Unknown or inconclusive
Epidemiological comments Rabbit haemorrhagic disease was detected in liver samples from pet rabbits which had presented with variable degree of inappetence and significantly elevated liver enzymes prior to death. Testing modalities included histopathology, RT-PCR, and Sanger sequencing. Histopathology of the liver sections revealed moderate to severe acute liver necrosis, RT-PCR detected RHD virus, and Sanger sequencing yielded sequence similarity (95%) to RHDV2 sequences in Genbank of a 240bp fragment of VP60. Eight out of eleven rabbits owned by three different owners have since died. Two of the owners had reported history of contact.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Screening
  • Disinfection
  • Vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists)
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
Animal and Plant Health Centre (National laboratory) Rabbits gene sequencing 16/09/2020 Positive
Animal and Plant Health Centre (National laboratory) Rabbits histopathological examination 01/09/2020 Positive
Animal and Plant Health Centre (National laboratory) Rabbits reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 10/09/2020 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations