Sheep pox and goat pox,
Bhutan
Information received on 07/01/2021 from Dr Tashi Yangzome Dorji, Director, Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Thimphu, Bhutan
Summary
Report type Immediate notification
Date of start of the event 16/10/2020
Date of confirmation of the event 16/12/2020
Report date 06/01/2021
Date submitted to OIE 07/01/2021
Reason for notification First occurrence of a listed disease in the country
Causal agent Capripoxvirus
Nature of diagnosis Suspicion, Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
New outbreaks (1)
Outbreak 1 Chagri Monastery, Kawang, Thimphu
Date of start of the outbreak 16/10/2020
Outbreak status Resolved (23/11/2020)
Epidemiological unit Village
Affected animals
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Sheep / goats 35 6 0 0 0
Himalayan brown goral:Naemorhedus hodgsoni(Bovidae) 38 12 12 0 0
Affected population Domestic goats and sheep surrounding the monastery area are tshethar (local term for the practice of rescue of livestock animals from imminent slaughter) animals, and the gorals grazing around the monastery is a common sight because this wild species is protected or left undisturbed when seen around. Therefore, intermixing of these species occur directly or indirectly. Six goats are suspected to be affected but could not be tested due to lockdown.
Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
Total animals affected
Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
Sheep / goats 35 6 0 0 0
Himalayan brown goral:Naemorhedus hodgsoni(Bovidae) 38 12 12 0 0
Outbreak statistics
Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Sheep / goats 17.14% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Himalayan brown goral:Naemorhedus hodgsoni(Bovidae) 31.58% 31.58% 100.00% 31.58%
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
  • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Contact with infected animal(s) at grazing/watering
Epidemiological comments The Nature Conservation Division (NCD) of the Department of Forests and Park Services has been taking the lead in reporting and monitoring the situation. In collaboration with the Department of Livestock, all the necessary disease prevention and control measures have been implemented. The concerned people of the area have been advised to stop bringing in domestic small ruminants from outside, and report to the NCD upon encountering any suspected cases in the area. Due to the unavailability of reagents to test the samples for Capripoxvirus, the testing was delayed. However, after receiving the multiplex PCR reagents from the International Agency for Atomic Energy, Vienna (Austria), the collected samples were subjected to testing for Capripoxvirus. All the samples could not be tested due to the 2nd phase nationwide lockdown and it shall be tested soon after relaxation of the lockdown. Due to the on-going nationwide lockdown, the reporting has been delayed. Considering the disease epidemiology, sheep pox and goat pox is highly suspected but further differentiation between lumpy skin disease and sheep pox and goat pox could not be performed due to the lack of reagents for these viruses. Samples shall be referred for confirmation after relaxation of the current lockdown.
Control measures
Measures applied
  • Screening
  • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
  • Traceability
  • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
  • Zoning
  • Disinfection
  • Ante and post-mortem inspections
  • Vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists)
  • No treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied
  • No other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
National Veterinary Laboratory, National Centre for Animal Health, Serbithang (National laboratory) Himalayan brown goral reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 16/12/2020 Positive
Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
Map of outbreak locations